public final class Expr
extends java.lang.Object
implements java.io.Serializable
Exprs are stored initially in a very efficient way, and they can be created and written to links very quickly. When you call operations that inspect their structure or that extract component parts, however, it is likely that they must be unpacked into a more Javanative form that requires more memory.
In its present state, Expr has four main uses:
(1) Storing expressions read from a link so that they can be later written to another link. This use replaces functionality that Clanguage programmers would use a loopback link for. (J/Link has a LoopbackLink interface as well, but Expr affords an even easier method.)
Expr e = ml.getExpr(); // ... Later, write it to a different MathLink: otherML.put(e); e.dispose();Note that if you just want to move an expression immediately from one link to another, you can use the MathLink method transferExpression() and avoid creating an Expr to store it.
(2) Many of the KernelLink methods take either a string or an Expr. If it is not convenient to build a string of Mathematica input, you can use an Expr. There are two ways to build an Expr: you can use a constructor, or you can create a loopback link as a scratchpad, build the expression on this link with a series of MathLink put calls, then read the expression off the loopback link using getExpr(). Here is an example that creates an Expr that represents 2+2 and computes it in Mathematica using these two techniques:
// First method: Build it using Expr constructors: Expr e1 = new Expr(new Expr(Expr.SYMBOL, "Plus"), new Expr[]{new Expr(2), new Expr(2)}); // ml is a KernelLink String result = ml.evaluateToOutputForm(e1, 72); // Second method: Build it on a LoopbackLink with MathLink calls: LoopbackLink loop = MathLinkFactory.createLoopbackLink(); loop.putFunction("Plus", 2); loop.put(2); loop.put(2); Expr e2 = loop.getExpr(); loop.close(); result = ml.evaluateToOutputForm(e2, 72); e2.dispose();(3) Getting a string representation of an expression. Sometimes you want to be able to produce a readable string form of an entire expression, particularly for debugging. The toString() method will do this for you:
// This code will print out the next expression waiting on the link without // consuming it, so that the state of the link is unchanged: System.out.println("Next expression is: " + ml.peekExpr().toString());(4) Examining the structure or properties of an expression. Although it is possible to do this sort of thing with MathLink calls, it is very difficult in general. Expr lets you read an entire expression from a link and then examine it using a very highlevel interface and without having to worry about managing your current position in an incoming stream of data.
Expr is a work in progress. It will be expanded in the future.
Modifier and Type  Field and Description 

static int 
BIGDECIMAL
A type constant representing floating point numbers larger than can fit in a Java double, for use in an Expr constructor, vectorQ(type), or matrixQ(type).

static int 
BIGINTEGER
A type constant representing integers larger than can fit in a Java int, for use in an Expr constructor, vectorQ(type), or matrixQ(type).

static int 
COMPLEX
A type constant representing complex numbers, for use in an Expr constructor, vectorQ(type), or matrixQ(type).

static Expr 
INT_MINUSONE
Unused for now.

static Expr 
INT_ONE
Unused for now.

static Expr 
INT_ZERO
Unused for now.

static int 
INTEGER
A type constant representing integers, for use in an Expr constructor, vectorQ(type), or matrixQ(type).

static int 
RATIONAL
A type constant representing rational numbers, for use in an Expr constructor, vectorQ(type), or matrixQ(type).

static int 
REAL
A type constant representing real numbers, for use in an Expr constructor, vectorQ(type), or matrixQ(type).

static int 
STRING
A type constant representing strings, for use in an Expr constructor, vectorQ(type), or matrixQ(type).

static Expr 
SYM_COMPLEX
Unused for now.

static Expr 
SYM_FALSE
Unused for now.

static Expr 
SYM_INTEGER
Unused for now.

static Expr 
SYM_LIST
Unused for now.

static Expr 
SYM_NULL
Unused for now.

static Expr 
SYM_RATIONAL
Unused for now.

static Expr 
SYM_REAL
Unused for now.

static Expr 
SYM_STRING
Unused for now.

static Expr 
SYM_SYMBOL
Unused for now.

static Expr 
SYM_TRUE
Unused for now.

static int 
SYMBOL
A type constant representing symbols, for use in an Expr constructor, vectorQ(type), or matrixQ(type).

Constructor and Description 

Expr(java.math.BigDecimal val)
Creates an Expr representing a large Mathematica Real with the specified value.

Expr(java.math.BigInteger val)
Creates an Expr representing a large Mathematica Integer with the specified value.

Expr(double val)
Creates an Expr representing a Mathematica Real with the specified value.

Expr(double[] val)
Creates an Expr representing a Mathematica list of reals with the specified value.

Expr(double[][] val)
Creates an Expr representing a Mathematica matrix of reals with the specified value.

Expr(Expr head,
Expr[] args)
Creates an Expr with the given head and arguments.

Expr(int[] val)
Creates an Expr representing a Mathematica list of integers with the specified value.

Expr(int[][] val)
Creates an Expr representing a Mathematica matrix of integers with the specified value.

Expr(int type,
java.lang.String val)
Creates an Expr representing a Mathematica Integer, Real, String, or Symbol whose value is
given by the supplied string (for example "2", "3.14", or "Plus").

Expr(long val)
Creates an Expr representing a Mathematica Integer with the specified value.

Expr(java.lang.String val)
Creates an Expr representing a Mathematica String with the specified value.

Modifier and Type  Method and Description 

Expr[] 
args()
Gives an array of Exprs representing the arguments of this Expr.

java.lang.Object 
asArray(int reqType,
int depth)
Gives a Java array representation with the requested depth and element type.

java.math.BigDecimal 
asBigDecimal()
Gives the BigDecimal value for Exprs that can be represented as BigDecimals (this is exactly
the set for which integerQ() or realQ() returns true).

java.math.BigInteger 
asBigInteger()
Gives the BigInteger value for Exprs that can be represented as BigIntegers (this is exactly
the set for which integerQ() or realQ() returns true).

double 
asDouble()
Gives the double value for Exprs that can be represented as doubles (this is exactly
the set for which integerQ() or realQ() or rationalQ() returns true).

int 
asInt()
Gives the integer value for Exprs that can be represented as integers (this is exactly
the set for which integerQ() returns true).

long 
asLong()
Gives the long value for Exprs that can be represented as integers (this is exactly
the set for which integerQ() returns true).

java.lang.String 
asString()
Gives the string value for Exprs that can be represented as strings (this is exactly
the set for which stringQ() or symbolQ() returns true).

boolean 
atomQ()
Tells whether the Expr represents a Mathematica atom.

boolean 
bigDecimalQ()
Tells whether the Expr represents a Mathematica real (floatingpoint) number, but requires more digits
to store than can fit into a Java double.

boolean 
bigIntegerQ()
Tells whether the Expr represents a Mathematica integer, but requires more digits to store than can fit into a Java int.

boolean 
complexQ()
Tells whether the Expr represents a complex number.

static Expr 
createFromLink(MathLink ml)
This factory method will only be used by advanced programmers who are creating their own
classes that implement the MathLink interface.

Expr 
delete(int n)
Returns a new Expr that has the same head but the nth element deleted (counted from the
end if n is negative).

int[] 
dimensions()
Gives an array of integers representing the dimensions of this Expr.

void 
dispose()
Frees resources that the Expr uses internally.

boolean 
equals(java.lang.Object obj)
Implements an equality comparison that is similar to Mathematica's SameQ.

int 
hashCode() 
Expr 
head()
Gives a new Expr representing the head of this Expr.

double 
im()
Gives the imaginary part of an Expr that represents a complex number.

Expr 
insert(Expr e,
int n)
Returns a new Expr that has the same head but with e inserted into position n (counted from the
end if n is negative).

boolean 
integerQ()
Tells whether the Expr represents a Mathematica integer.

int 
length()
Gives the length (the number of arguments) of this Expr.

boolean 
listQ()
Tells whether the Expr represents a Mathematica list (that is, it has head List).

boolean 
matrixQ()
Tells whether the Expr represents a Mathematica matrix (that is, it has head List,
every element has head List, and no deeper parts are themselves lists).

boolean 
matrixQ(int eType)
Tells whether the Expr represents a Mathematica matrix, every element of which is of
the specified type.

boolean 
numberQ()
Tells whether the Expr represents a number (real, integer, rational, or complex).

Expr 
part(int i)
Gives a new Expr representing the specified part of this Expr.

Expr 
part(int[] ia)
Gives a new Expr representing the specified part of this Expr.

void 
put(MathLink ml)
Not intended for general use.

boolean 
rationalQ()
Tells whether the Expr represents a rational number.

double 
re()
Gives the real part of an Expr that represents a complex number.

boolean 
realQ()
Tells whether the Expr represents a real (floatingpoint) number.

boolean 
stringQ()
Tells whether the Expr represents a Mathematica string.

boolean 
symbolQ()
Tells whether the Expr represents a Mathematica symbol.

Expr 
take(int n)
Returns a new Expr that has the same head but only the first n elements of this Expr
(or last n elements if n is negative).

java.lang.String 
toString()
Gives a readable string representation.

boolean 
trueQ()
Tells whether the Expr represents the Mathematica symbol True.

boolean 
vectorQ()
Tells whether the Expr represents a Mathematica vector (that is, it has head List,
and no parts are themselves lists).

boolean 
vectorQ(int eType)
Tells whether the Expr represents a Mathematica vector, every element of which is
of the specified type.

public static final int INTEGER
public static final int REAL
public static final int STRING
public static final int SYMBOL
public static final int RATIONAL
public static final int COMPLEX
public static final int BIGINTEGER
public static final int BIGDECIMAL
public static final Expr SYM_SYMBOL
public static final Expr SYM_INTEGER
public static final Expr SYM_REAL
public static final Expr SYM_STRING
public static final Expr SYM_RATIONAL
public static final Expr SYM_COMPLEX
public static final Expr SYM_LIST
public static final Expr SYM_TRUE
public static final Expr SYM_FALSE
public static final Expr SYM_NULL
public static final Expr INT_ONE
public static final Expr INT_ZERO
public static final Expr INT_MINUSONE
public Expr(int type, java.lang.String val)
type
 the type of the Expr; must be one of INTEGER, REAL, BIGINTEGER, BIGDECIMAL, STRING, or SYMBOLval
 the value of the Expr, interpreted according to the type argumentjava.lang.IllegalArgumentException
 if an unsupported type is specifiedpublic Expr(long val)
val
 public Expr(double val)
val
 public Expr(java.lang.String val)
val
 public Expr(int[] val)
val
 public Expr(double[] val)
val
 public Expr(int[][] val)
val
 public Expr(double[][] val)
val
 public Expr(java.math.BigInteger val)
val
 public Expr(java.math.BigDecimal val)
val
 public static Expr createFromLink(MathLink ml) throws MathLinkException
ml
 MathLinkException
public boolean equals(java.lang.Object obj)
equals
in class java.lang.Object
obj
 public int hashCode()
hashCode
in class java.lang.Object
public void dispose()
public Expr head()
public Expr[] args()
public int length()
public int[] dimensions()
public Expr part(int i)
i
 the index of the desired partjava.lang.IllegalArgumentException
 if i is beyond the bounds of the expressionpublic Expr part(int[] ia)
This form of part() allows you to extract a part more than one level deep. Thus, e.part(new int[] {3,4}) is like the Mathematica function Part[e, 3, 4] or e[[3]][[4]].
ia
 the index of the desired partjava.lang.IllegalArgumentException
 if any of the part specifications are beyond the bounds of the expression.public double re() throws ExprFormatException
This method is meaningful only for Exprs that can represent Mathematica complex numbers (which is the set of Exprs for which complexQ, integerQ, realQ, or rationalQ would return true). Otherwise, it throws ExprFormatException.
ExprFormatException
im()
public double im() throws ExprFormatException
This method is meaningful only for Exprs that can represent Mathematica complex numbers (which is the set of Exprs for which complexQ, integerQ, realQ, or rationalQ would return true). Otherwise, it throws ExprFormatException.
ExprFormatException
 if this Expr is not an integer, real, rational, or complex numberre()
public java.lang.String toString()
toString
in class java.lang.Object
public boolean atomQ()
public boolean stringQ()
public boolean symbolQ()
public boolean integerQ()
public boolean realQ()
public boolean rationalQ()
public boolean complexQ()
public boolean numberQ()
public boolean bigIntegerQ()
public boolean bigDecimalQ()
public boolean trueQ()
public boolean listQ()
public boolean vectorQ()
public boolean vectorQ(int eType)
eType
 an integer constant representing the queried type. Will be one of INTEGER, REAL, STRING,
SYMBOL, RATIONAL, COMPLEX.public boolean matrixQ()
public boolean matrixQ(int eType)
eType
 an integer constant representing the queried type. Will be one of INTEGER, REAL, STRING,
SYMBOL, RATIONAL, COMPLEX.public int asInt() throws ExprFormatException
ExprFormatException
 if the Expr cannot be represented as an integer (e.g., if it is a function)asDouble()
,
asString()
,
asArray(int, int)
public long asLong() throws ExprFormatException
ExprFormatException
 if the Expr cannot be represented as a long (e.g., if it is a function)asDouble()
,
asString()
,
asArray(int, int)
public double asDouble() throws ExprFormatException
ExprFormatException
 if the Expr cannot be represented as a double (e.g., if it is a function)asInt()
,
asArray(int, int)
,
asString()
public java.lang.String asString() throws ExprFormatException
ExprFormatException
 if the Expr cannot be represented as a string (e.g., if it is a function)toString()
,
asInt()
,
asDouble()
,
asArray(int, int)
public java.math.BigInteger asBigInteger() throws ExprFormatException
ExprFormatException
 if the Expr cannot be represented as a BigInteger (e.g., if it is a function)asLong()
,
asDouble()
,
asBigDecimal()
public java.math.BigDecimal asBigDecimal() throws ExprFormatException
ExprFormatException
 if the Expr cannot be represented as a BigDecimal (e.g., if it is a function)asLong()
,
asDouble()
,
asBigInteger()
public java.lang.Object asArray(int reqType, int depth) throws ExprFormatException
try { int[][] a = (int[][]) e.asArray(Expr.INTEGER, 2); // ... now work with a } catch (ExprFormatException exc) { // e was not a depth2 array of integers }
reqType
 an integer constant representing the requested typedepth
 the depth (number of dimensions) of the returned array. Currently the max is 2.ExprFormatException
 if the Expr cannot be represented as an array of the
desired type (e.g., if it is an integer, or if it is not the right shape)java.lang.IllegalArgumentException
 if type is not INTEGER or REAL, or depth > 2asInt()
,
asDouble()
,
asString()
public void put(MathLink ml) throws MathLinkException
ml
 MathLinkException
public Expr take(int n)
n
 the number of elements to take from the beginning (or end if n is negative).java.lang.IllegalArgumentException
 if n is beyond the bounds of the expression.public Expr delete(int n)
n
 the index of the element to delete (counted from the end if n is negative).java.lang.IllegalArgumentException
 if n is beyond the bounds of the expression.public Expr insert(Expr e, int n)
e
 the element to insert.n
 the index at which to perform the insertion (counted from the end if n is negative).java.lang.IllegalArgumentException
 if n is beyond the bounds of the expression.J/Link is Copyright (c) 19992014, Wolfram Research, Inc. All rights reserved.