2.2.1 The State-Space Model of a Drum Boiler
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This state-space model of a drum boiler has a maximum steam flow of about 350 t/h and a drum pressure of 140 bar around an operating point of 90% full load (see G. Bengtsson and S. Lindahl, (1974)).
The states of the system represent, respectively, the drum pressure (bar), the drum liquid level (m), the drum liquid temperature (degrees Celsius), the riser wall temperature (degrees Celsius), and the steam quality (percent). The inputs are the heat flow to the risers (kJ/s) and the feedwater flow (kg/s). The measured quantities (output of the system) are the drum pressure (bar) and the drum liquid level (m).