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Apollo Moon Landings

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Apollo Moon Landing Sites

All the Apollo Moon landings took place when the Moon was in its first quarter. That is, they occured about a week or ten days after a new moon.

Each landing site was chosen near the day/night terminator, so that the Sun was very low on the horizon.

Each landing site was near the center of the lunar disk, so that the Earth was high above the horizon.

Landings took place near the day/night terminator because the lunar night has a temperature of: -170 degrees C, and the lunar day has a temperature of +120 degrees C. Near the terminator the temperatures are more agreeable.

date long lat Location

Apollo 11 {1969, 7,20} +23^49' + 0^67' Mare Tranquillitatis (south-west)

Apollo 12 {1969,11,19} -23^23' - 3^12' Oceanus Procellarum (east edge)

Apollo 13 {1970, 4,15}

Apollo 14 {1971, 2, 5} -17^28' - 3^40' Fra Mauro crater (north Mare Nubium)

Apollo 15 {1971, 7,30} + 3^39' +26^06' Apennine mountains (SE Mare Imbrium)

Apollo 16 {1972, 4,20} +15^31' -11^00' Descartes crater (rim Mare Nectaris)

Apollo 17 {1972,12,11} +30^46' +20^10' Taurus-Littrow (SE Mare Serenitatis)

PlanetPlot3D[Moon, {1969,7,20},
PlotLabelRule"Apollo 11",
FeaturesRule{RGBColor[1,0,0],
PointSize[0.02],
Point[{+23.82,+0.67}]}];

PlanetPlot3D[Moon, {1969,11,19},
PlotLabelRule"Apollo 12",
FeaturesRule{RGBColor[1,0,0],
PointSize[0.02],
Point[{-23.38,-3.20}]}];

PlanetPlot3D[Moon, {1970,4,15},
PlotLabelRule"Apollo 13"];

PlanetPlot3D[Moon, {1971,2,5},
PlotLabelRule"Apollo 14",
FeaturesRule{RGBColor[1,0,0],
PointSize[0.02],
Point[{-17.47,-3.67}]}];

PlanetPlot3D[Moon, {1971,7,30},
PlotLabelRule"Apollo 15",
FeaturesRule{RGBColor[1,0,0],
PointSize[0.02],
Point[{+3.65,+26.10}]}];

PlanetPlot3D[Moon, {1972,4,20},
PlotLabelRule"Apollo 16",
FeaturesRule{RGBColor[1,0,0],
PointSize[0.02],
Point[{+15.52,-11.00}]}];

PlanetPlot3D[Moon, {1972,12,11},
PlotLabelRule"Apollo 17",
FeaturesRule{RGBColor[1,0,0],
PointSize[0.02],
Point[{+30.77,+20.17}]}];

Labeling Features on the Moon

The Features option lets you add extra features to a plot of the Moon.

You can add feature labels for craters and Apollo landing sites as follows.

features =
{Apply[{RGBColor[1,0,0],
Circle[#2, 0.015*#3*
Cos[#2*N[Degree]]],
Text[#1, #2+{0,-3}]}&,
{{"Herschel",{-41,62},140},
{"Plato",{-9,53},100},
{"Aristoteles",{18,50},100},
{"Atlas",{44,47},90},
{"Posidonius",{30,32},100},
{"Archimedes",{-4,30},80},
{"Aristarchus",{-48,24},40},
{"Eratosthenes",{-11,15},60},
{"Copernicus",{-20,10},100},
{"Kepler",{-38,8},30},
{"Grimaldi",{-68,-6},220},
{"Langrenus",{61,-9},140},
{"Ptolemaeus",{-3,-10},140},
{"Gassendi",{-40,-18},90},
{"Petavius",{61,-25},170},
{"Pitatus",{-14,-30},90},
{"Tycho",{-11,-43},80},
{"Schickard",{-54,-44},200}},1],
Apply[{RGBColor[0,1,0],
Line[{#2+{1,1},#2-{1,1}}],
Line[{#2+{1,-1},#2-{1,-1}}],
Text[#1, #2+{0,-3}]}&,
{{"11",{+23.82,+0.67}},
{"12",{-23.38,-3.20}},
{"14",{-17.47,-3.67}},
{"15",{+3.65,+26.10}},
{"16",{+15.52,-11.00}},
{"17",{+30.77,+20.17}}}, 1],
{RGBColor[0,0,1],
Line[{{2,0},{-2,0}}],
Line[{{0,2},{0,-2}}]}};
PlanetPlot3D[Moon,{1998,1,4},
ShadingRuleFalse,
DefaultFontRule{"Helvetica",8},
FeatureLabelsRuleTrue,
FeaturesRulefeatures];

Mir TransitViking Mars Landings



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