Wolfram Language & System 10.4 (2016)|Legacy Documentation
Functional programming is a highly developed and deeply integrated core feature of the Wolfram Language, made dramatically richer and more convenient through the symbolic nature of the language. Treating expressions like as both symbolic data and the application of a function f provides a uniquely powerful way to integrate structure and function—and an efficient, elegant representation of many common computations.
MapIndexed — map with index information:
Select — select from a list according to a function
Array — create an array from a function
AssociationMap — create an association from a function