Wolfram Language & System 11.0 (2016)|Legacy Documentation

This is documentation for an earlier version of the Wolfram Language.View current documentation (Version 11.2)

VRML (.wrl)

  • Export creates files compatible with VRML 2.0.


    Registered MIME type: model/vrml
    VRML geometry format.
    Early standard for delivering 3D content on the web.
    Stores 3D geometries, background images, light source, and view point information.
    VRML files are normally embedded in HTML and rendered by a browser plugin.
    VRML is an acronym for Virtual Reality Modeling Language.
    ASCII text format.
    Commonly transferred as a compressed .wrl.gz file.
    Has been superseded by the X3D format.

Import and ExportImport and Export

  • Export["file.wrl",expr] exports a Graphics3D object to VRML.
  • Export["file.wrl",expr,elem] creates a VRML file by treating expr as specifying element elem.
  • Export["file.wrl",{expr1,expr2,},{{elem1,elem2,}}] treats each expri as specifying the corresponding elemi.
  • Export["file.wrl",expr,opt1->val1] exports expr with the specified option elements taken to have the specified values.
  • Export["file.wrl",{elem1->expr1,elem2->expr2,},"Rules"] uses rules to specify the elements to be exported.
  • See the reference pages for full general information on Export.
  • ExportString supports the VRML format.


  • Data representation elements:
  • "Graphics3D"Graphics3D representation of a VRML file
    "GraphicsComplex"VRML file represented as collection of GraphicsComplex objects
    "LineData"list of line indices, referencing the vertices given by "VertexData"
    "LineObjects"list of Line objects given in absolute coordinates
    "PolygonData"list of polygon indices, referencing the vertices given by "VertexData"
    "PolygonObjects"list of Polygon primitives given in absolute coordinates
    "VertexColors"colors associated with each vertex, given as a list of color primitives
    "VertexData"list of vertex coordinates
    "VertexNormals"normal vectors corresponding to the vertices given by "VertexData"
  • Export uses the "Graphics3D" element by default for VRML files.
  • The "VertexData" element corresponds to the first argument of GraphicsComplex.


  • Advanced options:
  • "InvertNormals"Falsewhether to invert the orientation of vertex normals
    "VerticalAxis"{0,0,1}orientation to assume for the coordinate system used in the file
  • By default, the Wolfram Language assumes that in the coordinate system used by the VRML format, the vertical axis corresponds to the third coordinate.
  • With the setting "VerticalAxis"->{0,1,0}, the Wolfram Language will apply the transformation {x,y,z}->{x,z,-y} to all graphics coordinates when exporting to VRML.

ExamplesExamplesopen allclose all

Basic Examples  (2)Basic Examples  (2)

This gives a Graphics3D object representing a knot:

Click for copyable input

Export it to VRML format:

Click for copyable input

Construct a 3D model based on the evolution of a 2D cellular automaton and export it to VRML:

Click for copyable input
Click for copyable input
Introduced in 2007