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$MaxExtraPrecision gives the maximum number of extra digits of precision to be used in functions such as N.
The default value of $MaxExtraPrecision is 50.
You can use Block[
] to reset the value of $MaxExtraPrecision temporarily during the evaluation of expr.
$MaxExtraPrecision is used implicitly in various exact numerical computations, including equality tests, comparisons and functions such as Round and Sign.
See the Mathematica book: Section 3.1.5.
See also: $MaxPrecision.