Wolfram Research, Inc.
int MLPutShortInteger(MLINK link, int i) puts the integer i to the MathLink connection specified by link, assuming that i contains only the number of digits in the C type short.
The argument i is typically declared as short in external programs, but must be declared as int in MLPutShortInteger() itself in order to work even in the absence of C prototypes.
See notes for MLPutInteger().
See The Mathematica Book: Section 2.12.5.