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Elementary Transcendental Functions

Exp[z]exponential function ez
Log[z]logarithm loge (z)
Log[b,z]logarithm logb (z) to base b
Sin[z], Cos[z], Tan[z], Csc[z], Sec[z], Cot[z]
trigonometric functions (with arguments in radians)
ArcSin[z], ArcCos[z], ArcTan[z], ArcCsc[z], ArcSec[z], ArcCot[z]
inverse trigonometric functions (giving results in radians)
ArcTan[x,y]the argument of x+iy
Sinh[z], Cosh[z], Tanh[z], Csch[z], Sech[z], Coth[z]
hyperbolic functions
ArcSinh[z], ArcCosh[z], ArcTanh[z], ArcCsch[z], ArcSech[z], ArcCoth[z]
inverse hyperbolic functions
Sinc[z]sinc function sin (z)/z

Elementary transcendental functions.

Mathematica gives exact results for logarithms whenever it can. Here is log21024.
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You can find the numerical values of mathematical functions to any precision.
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This gives a complex number result.
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Mathematica can evaluate logarithms with complex arguments.
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The arguments of trigonometric functions are always given in radians.
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You can convert from degrees by explicitly multiplying by the constant Degree.
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Here is a plot of the hyperbolic tangent function. It has a characteristic "sigmoidal" form.
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There are a number of additional trigonometric and hyperbolic functions that are sometimes used. The versine function is defined as vers (z)=1-cos (z). The haversine is simply . The complex exponential eix is sometimes written as cis (x). The Gudermannian function is defined as . The inverse Gudermannian is gd-1 (z)=log[sec (z)+tan (z)]. The Gudermannian satisfies such relations as sinh (z)=tan[gd (x)]. The sinc function Sinc[z] is the Fourier transform of a square signal.