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based on an earlier version of the Wolfram Language.
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Graphics Primitives for Text

With the Text graphics primitive, you can insert text at any position in two- or three-dimensional Mathematica graphics. Unless you explicitly specify a style or font using Style, the text will be given in the graphic's base style.
Text[expr,{x,y}]text centered at the point {x, y}
Text[expr,{x,y},{-1,0}]text with its left-hand end at {x, y}
Text[expr,{x,y},{1,0}]right-hand end at {x, y}
Text[expr,{x,y},{0,-1}]centered above {x, y}
Text[expr,{x,y},{0,1}]centered below {x, y}
Text[expr,{x,y},{dx,dy}]text positioned so that {x, y} is at relative coordinates {dx, dy} within the box that bounds the text
Text[expr,{x,y},{dx,dy},{0,1}]text oriented vertically to read from bottom to top
Text[expr,{x,y},{dx,dy},{0,-1}]text that reads from top to bottom
Text[expr,{x,y},{dx,dy},{-1,0}]text that is upside-down

Two-dimensional text.

This generates five pieces of text, and displays them in a plot.
In[1]:=
Click for copyable input
Out[1]=
Here is some vertically oriented text with its left-hand side at the point {2, 2}.
In[2]:=
Click for copyable input
Out[2]=
When you specify an offset for text, the relative coordinates that are used are taken to run from -1 to 1 in each direction across the box that bounds the text. The point {0, 0} in this coordinate system is defined to be center of the text. Note that the offsets you specify need not lie in the range -1 to 1.
Note that you can specify the color of a piece of text by preceding the Text graphics primitive with an appropriate RGBColor or other graphics directive.
Text[expr,{x,y,z}]text centered at the point {x, y, z}
Text[expr,{x,y,z},{sdx,sdy}]text with a two-dimensional offset

Three-dimensional text.

This puts text at the specified position in three dimensions.
In[3]:=
Click for copyable input
Out[3]=
Note that when you use text in three-dimensional graphics, Mathematica assumes that the text is never hidden by any polygons or other objects.
option name
default value
BackgroundNonebackground color
BaseStyle{}style or font specification
FormatTypeStandardFormformat type

Options for Text.

By default the text is just put straight on top of whatever graphics have already been drawn.
In[4]:=
Click for copyable input
Out[4]=
Now there is a rectangle with the background color of the whole plot enclosing the text.
In[5]:=
Click for copyable input
Out[5]=