This is documentation for Mathematica 7, which was
based on an earlier version of the Wolfram Language.
 Operations on Vectors Mathematica represents vectors as lists, and never needs to distinguish between row and column cases. Vectors in Mathematica can always mix numbers and arbitrary symbolic or algebraic elements. Mathematica uses state-of-the-art algorithms to bring platform-optimized performance to operations on extremely long, dense, and sparse vectors. Constructing Vectors Table — construct a vector from an expression Array — construct a vector from a function ConstantArray — construct a vector of constants SparseArray — construct a sparse vector from positions and values Elements of Vectors Length — number of elements in a vector Part — extract an element of a vector (v[[i]]) Set — reset an element of a vector (v[[i]]=x) VectorQ — test whether an expression is a vector Mathematical Operations +, *, ^, ... — automatically element-wise: {a, b}+{c, d}{a+b, c+d} Dot (.) — scalar dot product Cross () — vector cross product (entered as Esc cross Esc) Norm — norm of a vector Total — total of elements in a vector Vector Space Operations VectorAngle — angle between two vectors UnitVector — unit vector along a coordinate direction Normalize — normalize a vector to unit length Projection — find the projection of one vector on another Orthogonalize — find a Gram-Schmidt orthonormal basis KroneckerProduct — Kronecker outer product Displaying Vectors Row, Column — display in row or column form Arrow — represent an arrow in a graphic      D — derivatives of vectors of functions and functions of vectors Thread — force any function to thread over lists TUTORIALS Constructing Lists Building Lists from Functions MORE ABOUT Statistics Operation on Lists List Manipulation