This is documentation for Mathematica 7, which was
based on an earlier version of the Wolfram Language.
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Updated In 7 Graphic
is a graphics directive which specifies that arrows which follow should have arrowheads with sizes, positions and forms specified by spec.
  • With the default Arrowheads[Automatic] a single arrowhead is placed at the head of each arrow.
  • Arrowheads[s] specifies that arrowheads should have a length that is a fraction s of the total width of the graphic. The default is 0.04.  »
  • The symbolic values Tiny, Small, Medium and Large can be used for s. With these values, the size of the arrowhead is independent of the total width of the graphic.  »
  • Arrowheads[{spec1, spec2, ...}] specifies that arrows should include several arrowhead elements.
  • Each arrowhead element can be specified as follows:
sdefault arrowhead with scaled size s
{Automatic,pos}default arrowhead at position pos
{s,pos}scaled default arrowhead at position pos
{s,pos,g}arrowhead drawn as graphic g
{s,pos,{g,Delta}}shaft foreshortened by Delta
  • The position pos runs from 0 to 1 from the tail to the head of the arrow.
  • Arrowheads[{s0, s1, ..., sn}] specifies arrowheads with scaled sizes si at positions i/n.  »
  • The graphic g is placed so that the origin {0,0} of its coordinates lies at position pos along each arrow.
  • The graphic g is oriented so that its positive x axis is aligned with the direction of the shaft at position pos.
  • The graphic g is scaled so that one unit of its coordinates corresponds to a fraction s of the width of the whole graphic in which the arrow is being drawn.
  • With the specification {s, pos, {g, Delta}}, the shaft of the arrow is foreshortened by Delta in the coordinate system of g. This can prevent a thick shaft from "poking through" arrowheads at the head or tail of the arrow.  »
  • In 3D, the default option setting Appearance->"Flat" makes arrowheads always be rendered in the plane of the screen. Appearance->"Projected" makes them be rendered in 3D, and projected into the plane of the screen.
A 2D arrow:
A 3D arrow:
A full 3D arrow primitive using tubes:
Arrowheads with scaled sizes:
Symbolic values to specify predefined absolute sizes of arrowheads:
Double-headed arrow:
Uniformly spaced arrowheads with specific sizes:
Specify arrowhead size and position:
Multiple arrowheads with specific sizes and positions:
Reverse arrowheads by assigning negative size:
Graphics can be used as an arrowhead:
Graphics3D can also be used as an arrowhead for 3D arrow:
Foreshorten the shaft:
A billboard tree using a projected arrowhead:
Moving arrowheads:
New in 6 | Last modified in 7