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Wolfram LibraryLink User Guide
Wolfram LibraryLink provides a powerful way to connect external code to Mathematica, enabling high-speed and memory-efficient execution. It does this by allowing dynamic libraries to be directly loaded into the Mathematica kernel so that functions in the libraries can be immediately called from Mathematica.
You can exchange not only C-like data types such as integers, reals, packed arrays, and strings, but also arbitrary Mathematica expressions. In addition, there are useful functions such as sending errors and calling back to Mathematica.