This is documentation for Mathematica 8, which was
based on an earlier version of the Wolfram Language.
View current documentation (Version 11.1)
Expression Structure
A foundational idea in Mathematica is that all expressions—whatever they may represent—ultimately have a uniform tree-like structure.
FullForm the full functional form of an expression, without shortened syntax
TreeForm a representation of the tree structure of small expressions
Head the head of an expression: the f in
Length the number of elements in an expression
Part (..[[..]]) numbered part of an expression
Level parts specified by a given number of indices
Depth the maximum number of indices to specify any part
Symbol  ▪ Integer  ▪ Real  ▪ String  ▪ ...
Expression Sizes & Signatures
LeafCount  ▪ ByteCount  ▪ Hash