This is documentation for Mathematica 8, which was
based on an earlier version of the Wolfram Language.
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Operations on Vectors
Mathematica represents vectors as lists, and never needs to distinguish between row and column cases. Vectors in Mathematica can always mix numbers and arbitrary symbolic or algebraic elements. Mathematica uses state-of-the-art algorithms to bring platform-optimized performance to operations on extremely long, dense, and sparse vectors.
Constructing Vectors
Table construct a vector from an expression
Array construct a vector from a function
ConstantArray construct a vector of constants
SparseArray construct a sparse vector from positions and values
Elements of Vectors
Length number of elements in a vector
Part extract an element of a vector ()
Set reset an element of a vector ()
VectorQ test whether an expression is a vector
Mathematical Operations
+, *, ^, ... automatically element-wise:
Dot (.) scalar dot product
Cross () vector cross product (entered as Esc cross Esc)
Norm norm of a vector
Total total of elements in a vector
Vector Space Operations
VectorAngle angle between two vectors
UnitVector unit vector along a coordinate direction
Normalize normalize a vector to unit length
Projection find the projection of one vector on another
Orthogonalize find a Gram-Schmidt orthonormal basis
KroneckerProduct Kronecker outer product
Displaying Vectors
Row, Column display in row or column form
Arrow represent an arrow in a graphic
    
D derivatives of vectors of functions and functions of vectors
Thread force any function to thread over lists
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