This is documentation for Mathematica 8, which was
based on an earlier version of the Wolfram Language.
View current documentation (Version 11.1)
Standalone Mathematica Kernels
Mathematica's core language and computation capabilities can be accessed not only through its rich interactive notebook interface, but also directly through a command-line interface—allowing Mathematica to be used in large-scale batch mode, or as the world's most powerful scripting language, fully integrated into any computational environment.
Command Line Programs
Mathematica, mathematica launch the complete Mathematica system
MathKernel, math launch a standalone Mathematica kernel
MathematicaScript run a standalone executable script
% most recent output expression
Quit quit the Mathematica kernel
Input & Output
Get( ▪ Put( ▪ Import  ▪ Export  ▪ Input
Setting Up Scripts
-script command-line argument for running a script
$CommandLine, $ScriptCommandLine command-line arguments
Environment system environment variables
Batch Operation
$BatchInput, $BatchOutput handle interrupts etc. unattended
SendMail send an expression by email
init.m file of commands to run at initialization
$Echo where to echo input
$Input  ▪ $Output  ▪ $IgnoreEOF  ▪ $Linked  ▪ $ProcessID
UsingFrontEnd execute commands using a front end if necessary