This is documentation for Mathematica 8, which was
based on an earlier version of the Wolfram Language.
View current documentation (Version 11.1)

Normal

Normal[expr]
converts expr to a normal expression, from a variety of special forms.
  • Normal[expr] converts a power series to a normal expression by truncating higher-order terms.
  • Normal[expr] converts GraphicsComplex objects into ordinary lists of graphics primitives and directives.
  • When additional "data types" are introduced, Normal should be defined to convert them, when possible, to normal expressions.
Create a normal dense list from a sparse array:
Create a normal expression from a series expansion:
Create a normal dense list from a sparse array:
In[1]:=
Click for copyable input
Out[1]=
In[2]:=
Click for copyable input
Out[2]=
 
Create a normal expression from a series expansion:
In[1]:=
Click for copyable input
Out[1]=
In[2]:=
Click for copyable input
Out[2]=
Convert RootSum objects to Root objects:
Typically the RootSum objects will give more accurate numerical values:
Convert from a GraphicsComplex object to graphics primitives:
Both forms produce the same image:
Normal will affect expressions nested inside other expressions:
Compare the actual error to the theoretical asymptotic error for a difference quotient:
Power series about :
Asymptotic truncation error for small :
Compare actual and asymptotic errors as a function of for at :
With higher precision, the asymptotic error holds for smaller :
For f that work with SparseArray objects s, often Normal[f[s]]===f[Normal[s]]:
New in 1 | Last modified in 6