This is documentation for Mathematica 8, which was
based on an earlier version of the Wolfram Language.
View current documentation (Version 11.1)


prints as the standard Mathematica two-dimensional representation of expr.
  • StandardForm generates output that gives a unique and unambiguous representation of Mathematica expressions, suitable for use as input. »
  • StandardForm incorporates many aspects of traditional mathematical notation.
  • StandardForm is the standard format type used for both input and output of Mathematica expressions in notebooks.
  • StandardForm uses special characters as well as ordinary keyboard characters.
  • The notebook front end contains menu items for conversion to and from StandardForm.
StandardForm is used by default for output:
StandardForm for graphics:
StandardForm is used by default for output:
Click for copyable input
Click for copyable input
StandardForm for graphics:
Click for copyable input
Click for copyable input
Integer, Rational, Real, and Complex numbers:
Arbitrary-precision Real and Complex numbers:
Special constants:
Characters and strings of characters:
Control characters for strings:
Different Power expressions:
Special typeset expressions:
Different list structures:
Some objects use a special output representation:
Compare with the underlying FullForm of the expression:
Some objects use an elided output representation:
The elided parts are visible using InputForm:
StandardForm affects display but not evaluation:
Apply StandardForm to the evaluated integral:
StandardForm is two-dimensional unambiguous formatting:
OutputForm approximates StandardForm using keyboard characters:
TraditionalForm is two-dimensional, but ambiguous formatting:
InputForm and FullForm provide one-dimensional formatting:
Use ToString to generate a string in StandardForm:
The string includes two-dimensional markup:
Use ToExpression to convert back:
Use ToBoxes to get the box representation of an expression in StandardForm:
Use ToExpression to convert back:
Add formatting via Format:
Nested roots:
Nested powers:
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