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based on an earlier version of the Wolfram Language.
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is an option for Graphics3D and related functions which gives the point in space from which three-dimensional objects are to be viewed.
  • ViewPoint gives the position of the view point relative to the center of the three-dimensional box that contains the objects.
  • The view point is given in a special scaled coordinate system in which the longest side of the bounding box has length 1. The center of the bounding box is taken to have coordinates .
{1.3,-2.4,2}default setting
{0,-2,0}directly in front
{0,-2,2}in front and up
{0,-2,-2}in front and down
{-2,-2,0}left-hand corner
{2,-2,0}right-hand corner
{0,0,2}directly above
  • The following symbolic forms can also be used: »
Aboveabove, along the positive z direction
Belowbelow, along the negative z direction
Frontin front, along the negative y direction
Backat back, along the positive y direction
Leftleft, along the negative x direction
Rightright, along the positive x direction
{Left, Top}, etc.corners
  • Choosing a ViewPoint farther away from the object reduces the distortion associated with perspective.
  • Infinite coordinates can be used to specify orthographic views: »
{0,0,Infinity}view from above (plan view)
{0,0,-Infinity}view from below
{0,-Infinity,0}view from the front (front elevation)
{0,Infinity,0}view from the back
{-Infinity,0,0}view from the left
{Infinity,0,0}view from the right
  • The coordinates of the corners of the bounding box in the special coordinate system used for ViewPoint are determined by the setting for the BoxRatios option.
  • In a notebook front end, dragging with the mouse rotates a 3D object, by changing the azimuthal components of ViewPoint, as well as the setting for ViewVertical.
  • Dragging with the mouse while pressing Ctrl, Alt, or Option zooms in or out, changing the value of ViewAngle, but keeping ViewPoint fixed.
Specify the view point using special scaled coordinates:
Use symbolic view points:
Specify orthographic views:
Specify the view point using special scaled coordinates:
Click for copyable input
Use symbolic view points:
Click for copyable input
Specify orthographic views:
Click for copyable input
The view point coordinates are scaled to the longest side of the bounding box:
Default view point:
Use symbolic view points:
Use orthographic views:
The camera is located at ViewPoint, and aimed toward ViewCenter:
Same ViewPoint, but ViewCenter is the red point:
Illustrate the relation between ViewPoint and the simulated camera view:
ViewVector uses the ordinary coordinates system:
In this case, the longest edge has length 2 and the center of the box is :
Convert ViewPoint to ViewVector by multiplying the length and pointing the center:
ViewAngle controls the opening half-angle of a simulated camera:
After a dynamic view change using a mouse, apply Options to get current camera parameters:
An orthographic view of Plot3D can be used to simulate DensityPlot:
Random camera views of a molecular model:
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