This is documentation for Mathematica 8, which was
based on an earlier version of the Wolfram Language.
 MATHEMATICA TUTORIAL Related Tutorials »| More About »| Functions »

# Elementary Transcendental Functions

 Exp[z] exponential function Log[z] logarithm Log[b,z] logarithm to base Log2[z], Log10[z] logarithm to base 2 and 10 Sin[z], Cos[z], Tan[z], Csc[z], Sec[z], Cot[z] trigonometric functions (with arguments in radians) ArcSin[z], ArcCos[z], ArcTan[z], ArcCsc[z], ArcSec[z], ArcCot[z] inverse trigonometric functions (giving results in radians) ArcTan[x,y] the argument of Sinh[z], Cosh[z], Tanh[z], Csch[z], Sech[z], Coth[z] hyperbolic functions ArcSinh[z], ArcCosh[z], ArcTanh[z], ArcCsch[z], ArcSech[z], ArcCoth[z] inverse hyperbolic functions Sinc[z] sinc function Haversine[z] haversine function InverseHaversine[z] inverse haversine function Gudermannian[z] Gudermannian function InverseGudermannian[z] inverse Gudermannian function

Elementary transcendental functions.

Mathematica gives exact results for logarithms whenever it can. Here is .
 Out[1]=
You can find the numerical values of mathematical functions to any precision.
 Out[2]=
This gives a complex number result.
 Out[3]=
Mathematica can evaluate logarithms with complex arguments.
 Out[4]=
The arguments of trigonometric functions are always given in radians.
 Out[5]=
You can convert from degrees by explicitly multiplying by the constant Degree.
 Out[6]=
Here is a plot of the hyperbolic tangent function. It has a characteristic "sigmoidal" form.
 Out[7]=
The haversine function Haversine[z] is defined by . The inverse haversine function InverseHaversine[z] is defined by . The Gudermannian function Gudermannian[z] is defined as . The inverse Gudermannian function InverseGudermannian[z] is defined by . The Gudermannian satisfies such relations as . The sinc function Sinc[z] is the Fourier transform of a square signal.
There are a number of additional trigonometric and hyperbolic functions that are sometimes used. The versine function is sometimes encountered in the literature and simply is . The coversine function is defined as . The complex exponential is sometimes written as .