Evaluation in Patterns, Rules, and Definitions
There are a number of important interactions in Mathematica
between evaluation and pattern matching. The first observation is that pattern matching is usually done on expressions that have already been at least partly evaluated. As a result, it is usually appropriate that the patterns to which these expressions are matched should themselves be evaluated.
The fact that the pattern is evaluated means that it matches the expression given.
The right-hand side of the
condition is not evaluated until it is used during pattern matching.
There are some cases, however, where you may want to keep all or part of a pattern unevaluated. You can do this by wrapping the parts you do not want to evaluate with HoldPattern
. In general, whenever HoldPattern[patt]
appears within a pattern, this form is taken to be equivalent to patt
for the purpose of pattern matching, but the expression patt
is maintained unevaluated.
|HoldPattern[patt]||equivalent to patt for pattern matching, with patt kept unevaluated|
Preventing evaluation in patterns.
One application for HoldPattern
is in specifying patterns which can apply to unevaluated expressions, or expressions held in an unevaluated form.
from being evaluated, and allows it to match the
on the left-hand side of the
Notice that while functions like Hold
prevent evaluation of expressions, they do not affect the manipulation of parts of those expressions with
and other operators.
This defines values for
whenever its argument is not an atomic object.
According to the definition, expressions like
are left unchanged.
However, the pattern
is transformed according to the definition for
You need to wrap HoldPattern
to prevent it from being evaluated.
As illustrated above, the left-hand sides of transformation rules such as
are usually evaluated immediately, since the rules are usually applied to expressions which have already been evaluated. The right-hand side of
is also evaluated immediately. With the delayed rule
, however, the expression rhs
is not evaluated.
The right-hand side is evaluated immediately in
Here are the results of applying the rules. The right-hand side of the
rule gets inserted inside the Hold
|lhs->rhs||evaluate both lhs and rhs|
|lhs:>rhs||evaluate lhs but not rhs|
Evaluation in transformation rules.
While the left-hand sides of transformation rules are usually evaluated, the left-hand sides of definitions are usually not. The reason for the difference is as follows. Transformation rules are typically applied using
to expressions that have already been evaluated. Definitions, however, are used during the evaluation of expressions, and are applied to expressions that have not yet been completely evaluated. To work on such expressions, the left-hand sides of definitions must be maintained in a form that is at least partially unevaluated.
Definitions for symbols are the simplest case. As discussed in "Non-Standard Evaluation"
, a symbol on the left-hand side of a definition such as
is not evaluated. If x
had previously been assigned a value y
, then if the left-hand side of
were evaluated, it would turn into the quite unrelated definition
Here is a definition. The symbol on the left-hand side is not evaluated.
This redefines the symbol.
If you evaluate the left-hand side, then you define not the symbol
, but the value
of the symbol
Although individual symbols that appear on the left-hand sides of definitions are not evaluated, more complicated expressions are partially evaluated. In an expression such as
on the left-hand side of a definition, the args
is evaluated, so that a value is defined for
This shows the value defined for
You can see why the arguments of a function that appears on the left-hand side of a definition must be evaluated by considering how the definition is used during the evaluation of an expression. As discussed in "Principles of Evaluation"
, when Mathematica
evaluates a function, it first evaluates each of the arguments, then tries to find definitions for the function. As a result, by the time Mathematica
applies any definition you have given for a function, the arguments of the function must already have been evaluated. An exception to this occurs when the function in question has attributes which specify that it should hold some of its arguments unevaluated.
|symbol=value||symbol is not evaluated; value is evaluated|
|symbol:=value||neither symbol nor value is evaluated|
|f[args]=value||args are evaluated; left-hand side as a whole is not|
|f[HoldPattern[arg]]=value||f[arg] is assigned, without evaluating arg|
|Evaluate[lhs]=value||left-hand side is evaluated completely|
Evaluation in definitions.
While in most cases it is appropriate for the arguments of a function that appears on the left-hand side of a definition to be evaluated, there are some situations in which you do not want this to happen. In such cases, you can wrap HoldPattern
around the parts that you do not want to be evaluated.