# How to | Get Parts of a Matrix

*Mathematica* has many matrix operations that support operations such as building, computing, and visualizing matrices. It also has a rich language for picking out and extracting parts of matrices.

Define the following matrix. Note how a matrix in *Mathematica* is not restricted to number entries:

Out[268]//MatrixForm= |

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Use Part to go to the first row and take the second element:

Out[269]= | |

Or use the shorthand notation for Part:

Out[270]= | |

To take an entire row, use one index to specify the row:

Out[271]= | |

To take an entire column, you need to select all rows with All and specify the column:

Out[272]= | |

To pick out a submatrix, you can use Span (). First, define a 4×5 matrix:

Out[274]//MatrixForm= |

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The top-left 3×4 matrix with bold entries here corresponds to rows 1 through 3 and columns 1 through 4:

Extract the highlighted matrix by using Span () to specify the relevant span of rows and columns:

Out[275]= | |

Out[276]//MatrixForm= |

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Extract all elements except the outermost rows and columns (negative indices count from the end):

Out[277]= | |

Out[278]//MatrixForm= |

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