*Mathematica* Sessions

Command-Line Options and Environment Variables | Messages |

Initialization | Termination |

The Main Loop | Network License Management |

## Command-Line Options and Environment Variables

-pwfile | Mathematica password file |

-pwpath | path to search for a Mathematica password file |

-run | Mathematica input to run (kernel only) |

-initfile | Mathematica initialization file |

-initpath | path to search for initialization files |

-noinit | do not run initialization files |

-mathlink | communicate only via MathLink |

Typical command-line options for *Mathematica* executables.

If the *Mathematica* front end is called with a notebook file as a command-line argument, then this notebook will be made the initial selected notebook. Otherwise, a new notebook will be created for this purpose.

*Mathematica* kernels and front ends can also take additional command-line options specific to particular window environments.

MATHINIT | command-line environment for the Mathematica front end |

MATHKERNELINIT | command-line environment for the Mathematica kernel |

MATHEMATICA_BASE | setting for $BaseDirectory |

MATHEMATICA_USERBASE | setting for $UserBaseDirectory |

*Mathematica* will read the values of operating system environment variables, and will use these values in addition to any command-line options explicitly given.

## Initialization

On startup, the *Mathematica* kernel does the following:

*Mathematica*commands specified in any options passed to the kernel executable.

*Mathematica*commands in the systemwide initialization file .

*Mathematica*commands in the user-specific initialization file .

## The Main Loop

All *Mathematica* sessions repeatedly execute the following main loop:

Note that if you call *Mathematica* via *MathLink* from within an external program, then you must effectively create your own main loop, which will usually differ from the one described above.

## Messages

During a *Mathematica* session messages can be generated either by explicit calls to Message, or in the course of executing other built-in functions.

f::name::lang | a message in a specific language |

f::name | a message in a default language |

General::name | a general message with a given name |

If no language is specified for a particular message, text for the message is sought in each of the languages specified by $Language. If is not defined, a definition for General::name is sought. If still no message is found, any value defined for $NewMessage is applied to and .

Quiet[expr] evaluates expr while preventing messages from being printed during the evaluation. Off[message] prevents a specified message from ever being printed. Check allows you to determine whether particular messages were generated during the evaluation of an expression. $MessageList and MessageList[n] record all the messages that were generated during the evaluation of a particular line in a *Mathematica* session.

Messages are specified as strings to be used as the first argument of StringForm. $MessagePrePrint is applied to each expression to be spliced into the string.

## Termination

Exit[] or Quit[] | terminate Mathematica |

$Epilog | symbol to evaluate before Mathematica exits |

$IgnoreEOF | whether to exit an interactive Mathematica session when an end-of-file character is received |

end.m | file to read when Mathematica terminates |

There are several ways to end a *Mathematica* session. If you are using *Mathematica* interactively, typing Exit[] or Quit[] on an input line will always terminate *Mathematica*.

If you are taking input for *Mathematica* from a file, *Mathematica* will exit when it reaches the end of the file. If you are using *Mathematica* interactively, it will still exit if it receives an end-of-file character (typically Ctrl+d). You can stop *Mathematica* from doing this by setting $IgnoreEOF=True.

## Network License Management

single-machine license | a process must always run on a specific machine |

network license | a process can run on any machine on a network |

Single-machine and network licenses.

Copies of *Mathematica* can be set up with either single-machine or network licenses. A network license is indicated by a line in the file starting with !name, where name is the name of the server machine for the network license.

Network licenses are controlled by the *Mathematica* license management program , which is run on the server machine. This program must be running whenever a *Mathematica* with a network license is being used. Typically you will want to set up your system so that is started whenever the system boots.

Ways to start the network license manager under Microsoft Windows.

• Type directly on the Unix command line |

• Add a line to start in your central system startup script |

Ways to start the network license manager on Macintosh and Unix systems.

When is not started directly from a command line, it normally sets itself up as a background process, and continues running until it is explicitly terminated. Note that if one process is running, any other processes you try to start will automatically exit immediately.

-logfile file | write a log of license server actions to file |

-loglevel n | how verbose to make log entries (1 to 4) |

-logformat string | use a log format specified by string |

-language name | language to use for messages (default ) |

-pwfile file | use the specified file (default ) |

-timeout n | suspend authorization on stopped Mathematica jobs after n hours |

-restrict file | use the specified restriction file |

-mathid | print the MathID for the license server, then exit |

-foreground | run in the foreground, logging to |

-install | install as a Windows service (Microsoft Windows only) |

-uninstall | uninstall as a Windows service (Microsoft Windows only) |

Some command-line options for .

For more detailed information on , see "*Mathematica* System Administration".

monitorlm | a program to monitor network license activity |

monitorlm name | monitor activity for license server name |

Monitoring network license activity.

If is run in an environment where a web browser can be started, it will automatically generate HTML output in the browser. Otherwise it will generate plain text.