Two-Way Communication with External Programs
When you install a MathLink-compatible external program using Install, the program is set up to behave somewhat like a simplified Mathematica kernel. Every time you call a function in the external program, a CallPacket is sent to the program, and the program responds by sending back a result wrapped in a ReturnPacket.
This installs an external program, returning the LinkObject
used for the connection to that program.
sends a CallPacket
to the external program.
You can send the CallPacket
explicitly using LinkWrite
. The first argument of the CallPacket
specifies which function in the external program to call.
Here is the response to the CallPacket
from the external program.
If you use Install several times on a single external program, Mathematica will open several MathLink connections to the program. Each connection will however always correspond to a unique LinkObject.
|$CurrentLink||the MathLink connection to the external program currently being run|
Identifying different instances of a single external program.
:Pattern: addto[$CurrentLink, n_Integer]
This zeros the global variable
every time the program is started.
int addto(int n)
counter += n;
This installs one instance of the external program containing
This installs another instance.
This adds 10 to the counter in the first instance of the external program.
This adds 15 to the counter in the second instance of the external program.
This operates on the first instance of the program again.
If an external program maintains information about its state then you can use different instances of the program to represent different states. $CurrentLink then provides a way to refer to each instance of the program.
The value of $CurrentLink is temporarily set every time a particular instance of the program is called, as well as when each instance of the program is first installed.
|MLEvaluateString(stdlink,"string")||send input to Mathematica but return no results|
Sending a string for evaluation by Mathematica.
The two-way nature of MathLink connections allows you not only to have Mathematica call an external program, but also to have that external program call back to Mathematica.
In the simplest case, you can use the MathLink function to send a string to Mathematica. Mathematica will evaluate this string, producing whatever effects the string specifies, but it will not return any results from the evaluation back to the external program.
To get results back you need explicitly to send an EvaluatePacket to Mathematica, and then read the contents of the ReturnPacket that comes back.
MLPutFunction(stdlink, "EvaluatePacket", 1);
This constructs the expression Factorial
MLPutFunction(stdlink, "Factorial", 1);
This specifies that the packet you are constructing is finished.
MLCheckFunction(stdlink, "ReturnPacket", &n);
This extracts the integer result for
from the packet.
|MLEndPacket(stdlink)||specify that a packet is finished and ready to be sent to Mathematica|
Sending a packet to Mathematica.
When you can send Mathematica an EvaluatePacket[input], it may in general produce many packets in response, but the final packet should be ReturnPacket[output]. "Manipulating Expressions in External Programs" discusses how to handle sequences of packets and expressions whose structure you do not know in advance.