MathML (.mml)

MIME type: text/mathml, application/mathml+xml
MathML mathematical markup language.
Used for integrating mathematical formulas in web documents.
Rendering of embedded MathML is supported by a number of browsers and browser additions.
Specifies the presentation and the semantic content of mathematical formulas.
XML-based format.
Based on a draft that was derived from the Mathematica typesetting language.
Introduced in 1999 and updated in 2003 by the W3C math working group.
  • Import and Export fully support the MathML 2.0 specification.

Import and ExportImport and Export

  • Import["file.mml"] imports a MathML file and returns a box expression.
  • Export["file.mml", expr] exports an arbitrary expression to MathML.
  • Import["file.mml"] reads the MathML presentation elements from a file and converts them to the corresponding Mathematica box expression.
  • Import["file.mml", "Expression"] converts MathML to a Mathematica expression using TraditionalForm interpretation rules.
  • Export["file.mml", expr] converts a box expression or an arbitrary Mathematica expression to MathML.
  • When exporting an arbitrary mathematical expression, its presentation and its context are represented in the resulting MathML.
  • Import["file.mml", elem] imports the specified element from a MathML file.
  • Import["file.mml", {{elem1, elem2, ...}}] imports multiple elements.
  • The import format can be specified with Import["file", "MathML"] or Import["file", {"MathML", elem, ...}].
  • Export["file.mml", expr, elem] creates a MathML file by treating expr as specifying element elem.
  • Export["file.mml", {expr1, expr2, ...}, {{elem1, elem2, ...}}] treats each as specifying the corresponding .
  • Export["file.mml", expr, opt1->val1, ...] exports expr with the specified option elements taken to have the specified values.
  • Export["file.mml", {elem1->expr1, elem2->expr2, ...}, "Rules"] uses rules to specify the elements to be exported.
  • The export format can be explicitly specified in the form Export["file", expr, "MathML"] or Export["file", expr, {"MathML", elems}].
  • See the reference pages for full general information on Import and Export.
  • ImportString and ExportString support the MathML format.


  • General Import elements:
  • "Elements"list of elements and options available in this file
    "Rules"full list of rules for each element and option
    "Options"list of rules for options, properties, and settings
  • Data representation elements:
  • "Boxes"MathML typeset as a Mathematica box expression
    "Expression"arbitrary Mathematica expression
    "HeldExpression"unevaluated expression
    "XMLObject"MathML as a symbolic XML expression
    "XMLElement"nested XMLElement objects
  • Import and Export use the element by default.


  • Export options:
  • "Annotations"{}which annotations to include
    "Presentation"Truewhether to export MathML presentation elements
    "Content"Falsewhether to export MathML content elements
  • The setting for is a list which may include any number of the choices , , and .

ExamplesExamplesopen allclose all

Basic Examples (2)Basic Examples (2)

Exporting an arbitrary mathematical expression by default generates presentation MathML:

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This creates combined presentation and content MathML:

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This generates pure content MathML:

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Define and display a Mathematica box expression:

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Convert it to presentation MathML:

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Convert the previous output to a box expression and display it:

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Import automatically recognizes the MathML format:

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Show the available Import elements:

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Convert MathML to an evaluated expression:

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Import MathML as a symbolic XML expression:

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