WOLFRAM LANGUAGE TUTORIAL

Entering TwoDimensional Input

When the Wolfram Language reads the text , it interprets it as raised to the power .
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In a notebook, you can also give the twodimensional input directly. The Wolfram Language again interprets this as a power.
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One way to enter a twodimensional form such as into a Wolfram System notebook is to paste this form into the notebook by clicking the appropriate button in the palette.

Here is a palette for entering some common twodimensional notations.

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There are also several ways to enter twodimensional forms directly from the keyboard.

x Ctrl+^ y Ctrl+Spaceuse control keys that exist on most keyboards
x Ctrl+6 y Ctrl+Spaceuse control keys that should exist on all keyboards

Ways to enter a superscript directly from the keyboard.

You type Ctrl+^ by holding down the Control key, then pressing the ^ key. As soon as you do this, your cursor will jump to a superscript position. You can then type anything you want and it will appear in that position.

When you have finished, press Ctrl+Space to move back down from the superscript position. You type Ctrl+Space by holding down the Control key, then pressing the Space bar.

This sequence of keystrokes enters .
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Here the whole expression is in the superscript.
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Pressing Ctrl+Space takes you down from the superscript.
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You can remember the fact that Ctrl+^ gives you a superscript by thinking of Ctrl+^ as just a more immediate form of ^. When you type , the Wolfram Language will leave this onedimensional form unchanged until you explicitly process it. But if you type Ctrl+^ then the Wolfram Language will immediately give you a superscript.

On a standard Englishlanguage keyboard, the character ^ appears as the shifted version of 6. The Wolfram Language therefore accepts Ctrl+6 as an alternative to Ctrl+^. Note that if you are using something other than a standard Englishlanguage keyboard, the Wolfram Language will almost always accept Ctrl+6 but may not accept Ctrl+^.

x Ctrl+_ y Ctrl+Spaceuse control keys that exist on most keyboards
x Ctrl+- y Ctrl+Spaceuse control keys that should exist on all keyboards

Ways to enter a subscript directly from the keyboard.

Subscripts in the Wolfram Language work very much like superscripts. However, whereas the Wolfram Language automatically interprets as raised to the power , it has no similar interpretation for . Instead, it just treats as a purely symbolic object.

This enters as a subscript.
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Here is the usual onedimensional Wolfram Language input that gives the same output expression.
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x Ctrl+/ y Ctrl+Spaceuse control keys

How to enter a builtup fraction directly from the keyboard.

This enters the builtup fraction .
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Here the whole goes into the denominator.
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But pressing Ctrl+Space takes you out of the denominator, so the does not appear in the denominator.
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The Wolfram Language automatically interprets a builtup fraction as a division.
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Ctrl+@ x Ctrl+Spaceuse control keys that exist on most keyboards
Ctrl+2 x Ctrl+Spaceuse control keys that should exist on all keyboards

Ways to enter a square root directly from the keyboard.

This enters a square root.
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Ctrl+Space takes you out of the square root.
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Here is the usual onedimensional Wolfram Language input that gives the same output expression.
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Ctrl+^ or Ctrl+6go to the superscript position
Ctrl+_ or Ctrl+-go to the subscript position
Ctrl+@ or Ctrl+2go into a square root
Ctrl+% or Ctrl+5go from subscript to superscript or vice versa, or to the exponent position in a root
Ctrl+/go to the denominator for a fraction
Ctrl+Spacereturn from a special position

Special input forms based on control characters. The second forms given should work on any keyboard.

This puts both a subscript and a superscript on .
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Here is another way to enter the same expression.
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The same procedure can be used to enter a definite integral.
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In addition to subscripts and superscripts, the Wolfram Language also supports the notion of underscripts and overscriptselements that go directly underneath or above. Among other things, you can use underscripts and overscripts to enter the limits of sums and products.

x Ctrl+$ y Ctrl+Space or x Ctrl+4 y Ctrl+Space
create an underscript
x Ctrl+& y Ctrl+Space or x Ctrl+7 y Ctrl+Space
create an overscript

Creating underscripts and overscripts.

Here is a way to enter a summation.
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