# Entering Two-Dimensional Input

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*Mathematica*again interprets this as a power.

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One way to enter a two-dimensional form such as into a *Mathematica* notebook is to paste this form into the notebook by clicking the appropriate button in the palette.

There are also several ways to enter two-dimensional forms directly from the keyboard.

x Ctrl+^ y Ctrl+Space | use control keys that exist on most keyboards |

x Ctrl+6 y Ctrl+Space | use control keys that should exist on all keyboards |

Ways to enter a superscript directly from the keyboard.

You type Ctrl+^ by holding down the Control key, then pressing the ^ key. As soon as you do this, your cursor will jump to a superscript position. You can then type anything you want and it will appear in that position.

When you have finished, press Ctrl+Space to move back down from the superscript position. You type Ctrl+Space by holding down the Control key, then pressing the Space bar.

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You can remember the fact that Ctrl+^ gives you a superscript by thinking of Ctrl+^ as just a more immediate form of ^. When you type , *Mathematica* will leave this one-dimensional form unchanged until you explicitly process it. But if you type Ctrl+^ then *Mathematica* will immediately give you a superscript.

On a standard English-language keyboard, the character ^ appears as the shifted version of 6. *Mathematica* therefore accepts Ctrl+6 as an alternative to Ctrl+^. Note that if you are using something other than a standard English-language keyboard, *Mathematica* will almost always accept Ctrl+6 but may not accept Ctrl+^.

x Ctrl+_ y Ctrl+Space | use control keys that exist on most keyboards |

x Ctrl+- y Ctrl+Space | use control keys that should exist on all keyboards |

Ways to enter a subscript directly from the keyboard.

Subscripts in *Mathematica* work very much like superscripts. However, whereas *Mathematica* automatically interprets as raised to the power , it has no similar interpretation for . Instead, it just treats as a purely symbolic object.

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How to enter a built-up fraction directly from the keyboard.

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Ctrl+@ x Ctrl+Space | use control keys that exist on most keyboards |

Ctrl+2 x Ctrl+Space | use control keys that should exist on all keyboards |

Ways to enter a square root directly from the keyboard.

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Ctrl+^ or Ctrl+6 | go to the superscript position |

Ctrl+_ or Ctrl+- | go to the subscript position |

Ctrl+@ or Ctrl+2 | go into a square root |

Ctrl+% or Ctrl+5 | go from subscript to superscript or vice versa, or to the exponent position in a root |

Ctrl+/ | go to the denominator for a fraction |

Ctrl+Space | return from a special position |

Special input forms based on control characters. The second forms given should work on any keyboard.

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In addition to subscripts and superscripts, *Mathematica* also supports the notion of underscripts and overscripts—elements that go directly underneath or above. Among other things, you can use underscripts and overscripts to enter the limits of sums and products.

x Ctrl+Plus y Ctrl+Space or x Ctrl+= y Ctrl+Space | |

create an underscript | |

x Ctrl+& y Ctrl+Space or x Ctrl+7 y Ctrl+Space | |

create an overscript |

Creating underscripts and overscripts.

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