# Plus x+y+z

represents a sum of terms.

# Details • Plus has attributes Flat, Orderless, and OneIdentity.
• The default value for arguments of Plus, as used in x_. patterns, is 0. »
• Plus[] is taken to be 0.
• Plus[x] is x.
• x+0 evaluates to x, but x+0.0 is left unchanged.
• In mixed fractions such as 1 , the implicit addition can be entered as 1 +  or 1 \[ImplicitPlus] . This evaluates to 1+ , but implicit addition is an operator with much higher precedence than +.
• Unlike other functions, Plus applies builtin rules before userdefined ones. As a result, it is not possible to make definitions such as 2+2=5.

# Background & Context

• Plus is a function that does addition (summation) of expressions. The expression Plus[a,b,c,] is commonly represented using the shorthand syntax a+b+c+. Special cases include Plus[], which is taken to be 0, and Plus[x], which is taken to be x.
• Plus sorts its arguments and collapses any terms of the same type. Plus also threads element-wise over lists.
• To perform summation at a particular level of a list or to apply compensative summation to reduce numerical error for inexact summands, the function Total can be used. Accumulate gives a list of the successive accumulated totals of elements in a list. AddTo, Increment, and PreIncrement can be used to increase the value of a given variable. Minus gives the arithmetic negation of an expression, and Subtract gives the difference of two numbers.
• Summation of a function over a range or list of arguments is done using the function Sum.

# Examples

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## Basic Examples(2)

 In:= Out= Plus threads element-wise over lists:

 In:= Out= In:= Out= Explicit FullForm:

 In:= Out= ## Possible Issues(10)

Introduced in 1988
(1.0)
|
Updated in 2007
(6.0)