# Example-Weighted Neural Network Training

Example weighting is a common variant of neural network training in which different examples in the training data are given different importance. Simply put, this is accomplished by multiplying the loss of each example by the weight associated with this example to accord it higher or lower importance in the optimization process performed by NetTrain.
There are several situations in which this technique can be beneficial:
• Correctly classifying certain examples might be more important than classifying other examples. Imagine a binary classifier used for fraud detection: false positives might be benign, but false negatives catastrophic. One way to address this during training is to place greater example weight on positive examples than on negative examples.
• Similarly, if we have a prior distribution for the occurrence of classes of a classification problem, but our training data consists of relatively balanced numbers of the different classes, we can incorporate this prior distribution directly into the learning task by weighting the examples relative to the prior probability of the corresponding class.
• The training data might represent measurements containing variable amounts of noise, or there might be examples that are mislabeled. This can be addressed by placing higher example weight on examples in which there is higher confidence.
• Certain regions of the training data space might be harder for the net to learn than others. This can be addressed by emphasizing examples that fall in this space, using higher example weights.
• In curriculum learning, the way the model is trained is changed over time as it improves. For example, the model might be trained first on easier examples and later on harder examples. One way to accomplish this is to dynamically change the example weights associated with specific sets of examples as training progresses.
In this tutorial, we give stylized examples of example weighting for regression and classification that should be relatively easy to adapt to real-world scenarios.

### Weighting of Examples for Regression

This example demonstrates using example weighting to emphasize specific regions of the input space. We start by defining a function that our training net will attempt to approximate.
Define a simple function and plot it:
We create training data by sampling this function at regular points:
We train a simple linear regression model with no example weighting, to serve as a baseline with which we can compare example-weighted training. Note that we are using MeanSquaredLossLayer as the loss function; this is actually already the default, but later we will have to explicitly construct a training net, so we are highlighting the choice of loss function now.
Create a simple linear regression model:
Use NetTrain to train the model:
Visualize the results:
Next, we perform weighted training. We will create two datasets that emphasize examples to the left and right of the origin, respectively. We will construct a training net that multiplies the mean squared loss we used previously with the training weight. This multiplication causes NetTrain to preferentially optimize for examples that have higher weights.
Create weighted datasets using the Exp function to bias either the left or the right side of the input space:
Show samples from the datasets:
Plot the weights:
Create a training net that uses example weighting:
For each dataset, train the net with NetTrain, specifying that the "WeightedLoss" output should be optimized directly, then extract the prediction net from the final training net:
Plotting the behavior of the resulting nets, we can see that the left-weighted net learned a good approximation on the left half of the input space, the right-weighted net learned a good approximation on the right half of the input space, and the unweighted net learned an approximation that does not favor either side.
Plot the predictions of the unweighted and weighted nets alongside the original function they were attempting to approximate:

### Weighting of Examples for Classification

This example shows how to bias the classification of ambiguous examples by using higher example weights for all examples of a specific class.
First, we create a synthetic dataset consisting of two clusters with a certain degree of overlap.
Synthesize clusters from unit-variance normal distributions at -1 and 1:
Plot a histogram of the points in the clusters:
Create training data suitable for NetTrain:
We train a simple logistic regression model with no example weighting, to serve as a baseline with which we can compare example-weighted training. Note that we are using CrossEntropyLossLayer as the loss function; this is actually already the default, but later we will have to explicitly construct a training net, so we are highlighting it now.
Create a simple logistic regression model:
Train the net:
Evaluate the probabilities at the centers of the two clusters:
Plot the probability of the first class as a function of x:
Next, we perform weighted training. This requires training data that emphasizes the examples belonging to the first cluster and constructing a training net that multiplies the cross-entropy loss we used previously with the training weight. The multiplication causes NetTrain to preferentially optimize for examples that have higher weights, in this case, examples from the first cluster.
Define some class weights and assign them to the data:
Show a sample of the weighted training data:
Create a training net that uses example weighting:
Train the net with NetTrain, specifying that the "WeightedLoss" output should be optimized directly, then extract the prediction net from the final training net:
Reattach the "Class" decoder, which was lost when the regression net was embedding in the training net:
Evaluate the probabilities at the centers of the two clusters:
By plotting the probability learned by the weighted net, we can see that the weighted data biases the predictions of the net toward the first cluster, so that the threshold at which the two classes are seen as equally likely is further to the right.
Plot the probability of the first class as a function of x:
We can also observe the difference by looking at the recall and confusion matrices. The unweighted net has roughly equal recall for the two classes and a symmetric confusion matrix. The weighted net has higher recall for class 1 at the cost of class 2 and an asymmetric confusion matrix.
Use NetMeasurements to calculate the recall and confusion matrix plot: