WOLFRAM SYSTEM MODELER

# dgees

Compute real Schur form T of real nonsymmetric matrix A, and, optionally, the matrix of Schur vectors Z as well as the eigenvalues

# Wolfram Language

In[1]:=
`SystemModel["Modelica.Math.Matrices.LAPACK.dgees"]`
Out[1]:=

# Information

This information is part of the Modelica Standard Library maintained by the Modelica Association.

```Lapack documentation
Purpose
=======

DGEES computes for an N-by-N real nonsymmetric matrix A, the
eigenvalues, the real Schur form T, and, optionally, the matrix of
Schur vectors Z.  This gives the Schur factorization A = Z*T*(Z**T).

Optionally, it also orders the eigenvalues on the diagonal of the
real Schur form so that selected eigenvalues are at the top left.
The leading columns of Z then form an orthonormal basis for the
invariant subspace corresponding to the selected eigenvalues.

A matrix is in real Schur form if it is upper quasi-triangular with
1-by-1 and 2-by-2 blocks. 2-by-2 blocks will be standardized in the
form
[  a  b  ]
[  c  a  ]

where b*c < 0. The eigenvalues of such a block are a +- sqrt(bc).

Arguments
=========

JOBVS   (input) CHARACTER*1
= 'N': Schur vectors are not computed;
= 'V': Schur vectors are computed.

SORT    (input) CHARACTER*1
Specifies whether or not to order the eigenvalues on the
diagonal of the Schur form.
= 'N': Eigenvalues are not ordered;
= 'S': Eigenvalues are ordered (see SELECT).

SELECT  (external procedure) LOGICAL FUNCTION of two DOUBLE PRECISION arguments
SELECT must be declared EXTERNAL in the calling subroutine.
If SORT = 'S', SELECT is used to select eigenvalues to sort
to the top left of the Schur form.
If SORT = 'N', SELECT is not referenced.
An eigenvalue WR(j)+sqrt(-1)*WI(j) is selected if
SELECT(WR(j),WI(j)) is true; i.e., if either one of a complex
conjugate pair of eigenvalues is selected, then both complex
eigenvalues are selected.
Note that a selected complex eigenvalue may no longer
satisfy SELECT(WR(j),WI(j)) = .TRUE. after ordering, since
ordering may change the value of complex eigenvalues
(especially if the eigenvalue is ill-conditioned); in this
case INFO is set to N+2 (see INFO below).

N       (input) INTEGER
The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

A       (input/output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDA,N)
On entry, the N-by-N matrix A.
On exit, A has been overwritten by its real Schur form T.

LDA     (input) INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array A.  LDA >= max(1,N).

SDIM    (output) INTEGER
If SORT = 'N', SDIM = 0.
If SORT = 'S', SDIM = number of eigenvalues (after sorting)
for which SELECT is true. (Complex conjugate
pairs for which SELECT is true for either
eigenvalue count as 2.)

WR      (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
WI      (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N)
WR and WI contain the real and imaginary parts,
respectively, of the computed eigenvalues in the same order
that they appear on the diagonal of the output Schur form T.
Complex conjugate pairs of eigenvalues will appear
consecutively with the eigenvalue having the positive
imaginary part first.

VS      (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDVS,N)
If JOBVS = 'V', VS contains the orthogonal matrix Z of Schur
vectors.
If JOBVS = 'N', VS is not referenced.

LDVS    (input) INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array VS.  LDVS >= 1; if
JOBVS = 'V', LDVS >= N.

WORK    (workspace/output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))
On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) contains the optimal LWORK.

LWORK   (input) INTEGER
The dimension of the array WORK.  LWORK >= max(1,3*N).
For good performance, LWORK must generally be larger.

If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine
only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns
this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error
message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.

BWORK   (workspace) LOGICAL array, dimension (N)
Not referenced if SORT = 'N'.

INFO    (output) INTEGER
= 0: successful exit
< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.
> 0: if INFO = i, and i is
<= N: the QR algorithm failed to compute all the
eigenvalues; elements 1:ILO-1 and i+1:N of WR and WI
contain those eigenvalues which have converged; if
JOBVS = 'V', VS contains the matrix which reduces A
to its partially converged Schur form.
= N+1: the eigenvalues could not be reordered because some
eigenvalues were too close to separate (the problem
is very ill-conditioned);
= N+2: after reordering, roundoff changed values of some
complex eigenvalues so that leading eigenvalues in
the Schur form no longer satisfy SELECT=.TRUE.  This
could also be caused by underflow due to scaling.```

# Syntax

(T, Z, eval_real, eval_imag, info) = dgees(A)

# Inputs (1)

A Type: Real[:,size(A, 1)] Description: Square matrix

# Outputs (5)

T Default Value: A Type: Real[size(A, 1),size(A, 2)] Description: Real Schur form with A = Z*T*Z' Type: Real[size(A, 1),size(A, 1)] Description: Orthogonal matrix Z of Schur vectors Type: Real[size(A, 1)] Description: Real part of the eigenvectors of A Type: Real[size(A, 1)] Description: Imaginary part of the eigenvectors of A Type: Integer