Elementary Functions

Using the latest platform-optimized code, Mathematica not only delivers high-efficiency machine-precision evaluation of elementary functions, but also—using a number of original algorithms—provides the world's fastest arbitrary-precision evaluation. A sophisticated web of symbolic functions and transformations allows Mathematica to perform exact numerical and algebraic operations on elementary functions—effortlessly obtaining results that in the past would have been viewed as major mathematical accomplishments.


Log base-e logarithm (Log[b, x] uses base b)

Log10, Log2 base-10, base-2 logarithms

Exp exponential

Power (^) — power (entered as a superscript using Ctrl+^)

Sqrt square root (entered using Ctrl+@)

CubeRoot, Surd real-number fractional powers

Trigonometric Functions »

Degree (°) — constant for converting to degrees

Sin ▪ Cos ▪ Tan

ArcSin ▪ ArcCos ▪ ArcTan


Hyperbolic Functions »

Sinh ▪ Cosh ▪ Tanh

ArcSinh ▪ ArcCosh ▪ ArcTanh

N numerical evaluation to any precision

FunctionExpand expand in terms of simpler functions or smaller arguments

FullSimplify apply full symbolic simplification

Series series expansion

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