Ordinary mathematical functions in Mathematica are always "listable", so that they are immediately applied in parallel across lists. Mathematica provides a wide variety of tightly integrated functions for analyzing elements in lists of any size and structure.
Listable — attribute carried by math functions specifying automatic threading over lists
Length — number of elements in a list
Total — total from adding up elements in a list
Count — count how many elements match a pattern
Tally — tally the number of copies of each distinct element
BinCounts — count the number of elements in a sequence of bins