is an option for NDSolve and other functions that specifies the list of all objects that should be considered as dependent variables in equations that have been supplied.


  • With DependentVariables->Automatic, the dependent variables are determined from the equations.
  • DependentVariables->{u1,u2,} specifies a complete list of dependent variables ui representing functions that should be solved for, even if the solutions are not eventually returned.
  • DependentVariables->{uspec1,uspec2,} can be used to specify ranges for dependent variables.
  • Possible forms for uspeci are:
  • uu has range Reals or Complexes
    Element[u,Reals]u has range Reals
    Element[u,Complexes]u has range Complexes
    Element[u,{v1,}]u has discrete range {v1,}
    {u,umin,umax}u has range u_(min)<=u<=u_(max)
    uspeciactioniperform actioni when uspeci is no longer satisfied


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Basic Examples  (2)

Save only the solution for x[t]:

Plot the solution x[t] as a function of t:

Stop the integration when the solution has left a specified range:

Scope  (4)

Multiple range specifications can be enforced for a single dependent variable:

Perform a custom action when a dependent variable goes out of range:

The event action each time the variable leaves the specified range:

Print a message and stop the integration the first time a variable goes out of range:

Applications  (2)

Set up a very large system of equations:

Solve for all of the dependent variables, but save only the solution for x1:

This saves a lot of memory versus saving all the solutions:

Model an unstable inverted pendulum with oscillating base:

Stop the simulation if θ[t] goes outside the range :

At a stable amplitude, the inverted pendulum with oscillating base will not fall out of range:

Properties & Relations  (1)

Variable range checking can also be achieved with WhenEvent:

An equivalent range check with DependentVariables is more direct and comprehensible:

WhenEvent is useful for more complicated range checking:

Possible Issues  (3)

A variable cannot be specified as both dependent and discrete:

A dependent variable cannot have a discrete range:

The variables in a range specification must be valid dependent variables:

Use conditions directly for the dependent variable:

Or use a WhenEvent expression in the equation:

Wolfram Research (2003), DependentVariables, Wolfram Language function, (updated 2012).


Wolfram Research (2003), DependentVariables, Wolfram Language function, (updated 2012).


Wolfram Language. 2003. "DependentVariables." Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Wolfram Research. Last Modified 2012.


Wolfram Language. (2003). DependentVariables. Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Retrieved from


@misc{reference.wolfram_2024_dependentvariables, author="Wolfram Research", title="{DependentVariables}", year="2012", howpublished="\url{}", note=[Accessed: 24-June-2024 ]}


@online{reference.wolfram_2024_dependentvariables, organization={Wolfram Research}, title={DependentVariables}, year={2012}, url={}, note=[Accessed: 24-June-2024 ]}