gives a string corresponding to the Roman numeral form of the integer n.


  • Roman numerals are formed using combinations of the letters I, V, X, L, C, D, and M.
  • The number 0 is represented as the numeral "N", the initial letter of the word nulla.
  • RomanNumeral[n] for a negative integer n produces the result corresponding to the absolute value of n.
  • For numbers above 4999, specifications for overbars are inserted into the string given as the result.


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Basic Examples  (2)

Roman numeral corresponding to the number 2023:

Convert a list of integers into their Roman numerals:

Scope  (5)

Roman numerals are constructed using the letters I, V, X, L, C, D, and M:

The integer 0 is represented using the numeral "N". No other Roman numeral contains the letter N:

Beginning with 5000, integers have an overbar in their representation:

Each additional factor of 1000 adds another overbar:

Signs are ignored:

RomanNumeral threads automatically over lists of integers:

Properties & Relations  (4)

RomanNumeral returns strings in uppercase. Use ToLowerCase to convert to lowercase:

These are the possible repetitions and their counts in the first 4999 Roman numerals:

FromRomanNumeral converts a Roman numeral into its integer decimal form:

RomanNumeral[n] is equivalent to IntegerString[n,"Roman"]:

Wolfram Research (2015), RomanNumeral, Wolfram Language function,


Wolfram Research (2015), RomanNumeral, Wolfram Language function,


Wolfram Language. 2015. "RomanNumeral." Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Wolfram Research.


Wolfram Language. (2015). RomanNumeral. Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Retrieved from


@misc{reference.wolfram_2024_romannumeral, author="Wolfram Research", title="{RomanNumeral}", year="2015", howpublished="\url{}", note=[Accessed: 22-May-2024 ]}


@online{reference.wolfram_2024_romannumeral, organization={Wolfram Research}, title={RomanNumeral}, year={2015}, url={}, note=[Accessed: 22-May-2024 ]}