StoppingPowerData

StoppingPowerData[entity,{"Particle"particle,"Energy"quantity},property]

gives the value of the specific property for the substance for the specified particle and the energy of that particle.

Details

  • StoppingPowerData[] gives a list of the available substances.
  • StoppingPowerData["Properties"] gives a list of all properties available.
  • Properties that do not apply or are not known in a particular case are indicated by Missing[].
  • Properties are returned using Quantity where appropriate.
  • Specifications for "Particle" can be "AlphaParticle", "Electron", "Photon", or "Proton".
  • "Energy" should be specified as a Quantity.
  • The "Name" property returns the common English name for a substance.
  • Density-independent or mass stopping power properties include:
  • "BetheFormulaMassStoppingPower"stopping power calculated using the Bethe formula
    "CollisionMassStoppingPower"average rate of energy loss per unit path length due to collisions that result in the ionization and excitation of atoms
    "CSDARangeMassStoppingPower"path length traveled by a charged particle as it slows down to rest in an absorber material computed with the continuous slowing down approximation
    "ElectronicMassStoppingPower"average rate of energy loss per unit path length due to inelastic collisions with bound electrons in the medium
    "MassStoppingPower"total stopping power
    "NuclearMassStoppingPower"average rate of energy loss per unit path length due to inelastic collisions with atoms in the medium
    "RadiativeMassStoppingPower"average rate of energy loss per unit path length due to collisions with atoms and atomic electrons that result in Bremsstrahlung radiation
  • Linear stopping power properties include:
  • "BetheFormulaLinearStoppingPower"stopping power calculated using the Bethe formula
    "CollisionLinearStoppingPower"average rate of energy loss per unit path length due to collisions that result in the ionization and excitation of atoms
    "CSDARangeLinearStoppingPower"path length traveled by a charged particle as it slows down to rest in an absorber material computed with the continuous slowing down approximation
    "ElectronicLinearStoppingPower"average rate of energy loss per unit path length due to inelastic collisions with bound electrons in the medium
    "LinearStoppingPower"total stopping power
    "NuclearLinearStoppingPower"average rate of energy loss per unit path length due to inelastic collisions with atoms in the medium
    "RadiativeLinearStoppingPower"average rate of energy loss per unit path length due to collisions with atoms and atomic electrons that result in Bremsstrahlung radiation
  • Absorption fraction properties include:
  • "AbsorptanceFraction"fraction of incident electromagnetic radiation that is absorbed in 1 mm of the absorber
    "DensityEffectParameter"reduction parameter in collision stopping power due to polarization of medium
    "HalfValueLayer"thickness at which radiation intensity is reduced by half
    "MassAttenuationCoefficient"mass attenuation coefficient
    "MassEnergyAbsorptionCoefficient"mass energyabsorption coefficient
    "RadiationYield"fraction of the initial kinetic energy of an electron that is converted to Bremsstrahlung radiation
    "ShieldingThickness"approximation based on CSDA range
    "TenthValueLayer"thickness at which radiation intensity is reduced to a tenth
    "TransmittanceFraction"fraction of incident electromagnetic radiation that passes through an absorber in 1 mm
  • Properties used in calculation of stopping power and related properties include:
  • "DensityEffectParameter"a parameter for computing collision stopping power
    "MassAttenuationCoefficient"mass attenuation coefficient
    "MassEnergyAbsorptionCoefficient"mass energyabsorption coefficient
  • StoppingPowerData is based on a wide range of sources, with enhancement at Wolfram Research by both human and algorithmic processing. Principal sources include:
  • M. J. Berger, J. S. Coursey, M. A. Zucker, and J. Chang, NIST Standard Reference Database 124: Stopping-Power and Range Tables for Electrons, Protons, and Helium Ions, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2005.
  • J. H. Hubbell and S. M. Seltzer, NIST Standard Reference Database 126: Tables of X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients and Mass Energy-Absorption Coefficients from 1 keV to 20 MeV for Elements Z = 1 to 92 and 48 Additional Substances of Dosimetric Interest, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2004.
  • M. J. Berger, J. H. Hubbell, S. M. Seltzer, J. Chang, J. S. Coursey, R. Sukumar, D. S. Zucker, and K. Olsen, NIST Standard Reference Database 8: XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2010.

Examples

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Basic Examples  (1)

Find the stopping power of lead for a given impact energy:

Find the continuous slowing down approximation range for an electron impacting iron:

Scope  (6)

Obtain a list of substance names:

Learn the name of a substance:

For most substances, more information can be found using ChemicalData:

Obtain a list of properties:

Specify particle and energy to determine a property value:

Find the absorptance fraction of a millimeter of carbon dioxide:

Discover the thickness of lead sheeting needed to reduce radiation by half and by a tenth:

Find the shielding thickness of water to high-energy electrons:

Applications  (7)

Plot the nuclear stopping power of iron for proton impacts:

Visualize how stopping power for water varies with impact energy:

Examine the relationship between stopping power and impact energy on human tissue:

Compare the mass attenuation coefficient for various substances:

Discover the composition of the total stopping power as a function of energy:

Calculate the maximum depth the electrons can reach into water:

Explore the relationship between proton impact energy and necessary shielding thickness:

Possible Issues  (3)

A specified energy should be a Quantity with appropriate units:

Not all properties support all particles:

Property values are not available for all energies:

Neat Examples  (4)

Discover how linear stopping power and the path length traveled by an alpha particle relate:

Find the point where half of the initial kinetic energy is lost by radiation and the other half by ionizing atoms:

Examine the linear stopping power of biological tissue for alpha particles:

Explore how linear stopping power changes for an alpha particle emitted from an atom of uranium as the particle travels through biological tissue:

Calculate the slowdown rate :

Examine how the slowdown rate and energy vary with time:

Introduced in 2015
 (10.1)