# Applying Functions to Parts of Expressions

If you have a list of elements, it is often important to be able to apply a function separately to each of the elements. You can do this in the Wolfram Language using Map.

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Map[f,{a,b,…}] | apply f to each element in a list, giving |

Applying a function to each element in a list.

What Map[f,expr] effectively does is to "wrap" the function f around each element of the expression expr. You can use Map on any expression, not just a list.

Map[f,expr] applies f to the first level of parts in expr. You can use MapAll[f,expr] to apply f to *all* the parts of expr.

*all*levels in . If you look carefully at this expression, you will see an wrapped around every part.

In general, you can use level specifications as described in "Levels in Expressions" to tell Map to which parts of an expression to apply your function.

Map[f,expr] or f/@expr | apply f to the first‐level parts of expr |

MapAll[f,expr] or f//@expr | apply f to all parts of expr |

Map[f,expr,lev] | apply f to each part of expr at levels specified by lev |

Ways to apply a function to different parts of expressions.

Level specifications allow you to tell Map to which levels of parts in an expression you want a function applied. With MapAt, however, you can instead give an explicit list of parts where you want a function applied. You specify each part by giving its indices, as discussed in "Parts of Expressions".

MapAt[f,expr,{part_{1},part_{2},…}] | apply f to specified parts of expr |

Applying a function to specific parts of an expression.

MapIndexed[f,expr] | apply f to the elements of an expression, giving the part specification of each element as a second argument to f |

MapIndexed[f,expr,lev] | apply f to parts at specified levels, giving the list of indices for each part as a second argument to f |

Applying a function to parts and their indices.

Map allows you to apply a function of one argument to parts of an expression. Sometimes, however, you may instead want to apply a function of several arguments to corresponding parts of several different expressions. You can do this using MapThread.

MapThread[f,{expr_{1},expr_{2},…}] | apply f to corresponding elements in each of the |

MapThread[f,{expr_{1},expr_{2},…},lev] | apply f to parts of the at the specified level |

Applying a function to several expressions at once.

Functions like Map allow you to create expressions with parts modified. Sometimes you simply want to go through an expression, and apply a particular function to some parts of it, without building a new expression. A typical case is when the function you apply has certain “side effects”, such as making assignments, or generating output.

Scan[f,expr] | evaluate f applied to each element of expr in turn |

Scan[f,expr,lev] | evaluate f applied to parts of expr on levels specified by lev |

Evaluating functions on parts of expressions.