Conjugate

Conjugate[z]

or z gives the complex conjugate of the complex number z.

Details

  • Mathematical function, suitable for both symbolic and numerical manipulation.
  • can be entered as co, conj, or \[Conjugate].
  • Conjugate automatically threads over lists.

Examples

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Basic Examples  (4)

Evaluate numerically:

Use conj to conjugate expressions:

Plot over a subset of the reals:

Plot over a subset of the complexes:

Scope  (18)

Numerical Evaluation  (5)

Evaluate numerically:

Complex number input:

Evaluate to high precision:

The precision of the output tracks the precision of the input:

Evaluate efficiently at high precision:

Conjugate threads elementwise over lists and matrices:

Specific Values  (3)

Values of Conjugate at fixed points:

Value at zero:

Values at infinity:

Visualization  (4)

Plot the real and imaginary parts of and over the reals:

Plot the absolute value of function:

Compare the plots of and TemplateBox[{z}, Conjugate] in three dimensions:

Plot the real part of function:

Plot the imaginary part of function:

Function Properties  (6)

Conjugate is defined for all real and complex inputs:

The range of Conjugate is all real and complex values:

Conjugate is an odd function:

Conjugate is involutive, TemplateBox[{{(, TemplateBox[{z}, Conjugate, SyntaxForm -> SuperscriptBox], )}}, Conjugate]=z:

Conjugate is not a differentiable function:

The difference quotient does not have a limit in the complex plane:

The limit has different values in different directions, for example, in the real direction:

But in the imaginary direction, the limit is :

TraditionalForm formatting:

Applications  (5)

Define a scalar product for complexvalued lists:

Apply the definition:

Rewrite a complex-valued rational function into one with real denominator:

Recover the original fraction:

Implement a Möbius transformation:

Plot the images of concentric circles:

Write a realvalued function as a function of z and z:

Holomorphic functions are independent of z:

Use Conjugate to describe geometric regions:

Properties & Relations  (7)

Some transformations are performed automatically:

Conjugate is its own inverse:

Simplify expressions containing Conjugate:

Assume realvalued variables:

Assume generic complexvalued variables:

Use Conjugate as an option value in ComplexExpand:

Integrate along a line in the complex plane, symbolically and numerically:

Find Hermitian conjugate of a matrix:

Use ConjugateTranspose instead:

Possible Issues  (4)

Conjugate does not always propagate into arguments:

Differentiating Conjugate is not possible:

The limit that defines the derivative is direction dependent and therefore does not exist:

Use ComplexExpand to get differentiable expressions for real-valued variables:

Conjugate can stay unevaluated for numeric arguments:

Machineprecision numeric evaluation of Conjugate can give wrong results:

Use arbitrary precision evaluation instead:

Introduced in 1988
 (1.0)
 |
Updated in 2003
 (5.0)
2004
 (5.1)