# FunctionPoles

FunctionPoles[f,x]

finds the poles of the meromorphic function f with the variable x.

FunctionPoles[{f,cons},x]

gives the poles of f when x is restricted by the constraints cons.

# Details • Function poles are also known as pole singularities.
• Function poles are often used to compute the residue of a function in complex analysis or to compute the radius of convergence for a power series.
• A function has a pole singularity at with multiplicity if it has a series representation of the form . A function is meromorphic if it only has pole singularities.
• • FunctionPoles returns a list of pairs {pole,multiplicity}.
• The function f should be meromorphic for x satisfying the constraints cons.
• cons can contain equations, inequalities or logical combinations of these.
• The following options can be given:
•  Assumptions \$Assumptions assumptions on parameters GeneratedParameters C how to name parameters that are generated PerformanceGoal \$PerformanceGoal whether to prioritize speed or quality
• Some of the returned poles may have Indeterminate multiplicity if FunctionPoles fails to determine their multiplicity.

# Examples

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## Basic Examples(2)

Find poles of a rational function:

The set of poles may be infinite:

## Scope(6)

A rational function:

A function with infinitely many poles:

Find the poles with :

Analytic functions have no poles: has a removable singularity at :

FunctionPoles requires the input function to be meromorphic: The function is meromorphic for :

Some of the returned poles may have Indeterminate multiplicity if determining the multiplicity fails:

## Options(3)

### Assumptions(1)

Specify conditions on parameters:

### GeneratedParameters(1)

FunctionPoles may introduce new parameters to represent the solution:

Use GeneratedParameters to control how the parameters are named:

### PerformanceGoal(1)

Computing multiplicities of poles may take a long time:

PerformanceGoal"Speed" limits the time allowed for computation of multiplicity:

The poles returned in both cases are the same:

In the first case, all multiplicities are computed successfully:

In the second case, some multiplicities are not computed:

## Applications(3)

Classify singularities of a meromorphic function:

FunctionSingularities gives locations of poles and removable singularities: has a double pole at , a single pole at and a removable singularity at :

Integrate along the unit circle:

Compute the poles of in the unit disk:

Compute the integral using the residue theorem:

Compare with the result of numeric integration:

Find the radius of convergence of the Taylor series of at :

The radius of convergence equals the distance to the nearest pole:

Even though the poles are complex, the convergence over the reals is affected:

Since is farther from the poles than , the convergence radius at is greater:

## Properties & Relations(4)

The limit of the absolute value of a function at a pole is :

Use Limit to compute the limit:

The first term of the power series of a function at a pole of multiplicity has exponent :

Use Series to compute the series:

Use Residue to find the coefficient at the series term with exponent :

The only singularities a meromorphic function can have are poles and removable singularities:

Use FunctionSingularities to find a condition satisfied by all singularities:

Use SolveValues to find the singularities:

The function has poles at and and a removable singularity at :

Use FunctionPoles to find the poles of a function:

Use Residue to find the residues at the poles:

ResidueSum gives the sum of the residues at all poles:

## Possible Issues(2)

Some of the returned poles may have Indeterminate multiplicity if determining the multiplicity fails:

FunctionPoles rationalizes inexact inputs and then approximates the result to the input precision:

The result may depend on which rational numbers are chosen: In the first example, the rationalized exponent is an integer; in the second example, it is not: