yields a string in which all letters have been converted to uppercase.


  • ToUpperCase handles both ordinary and special characters.
  • Variant lowercase characters such as \[CurlyPhi] are converted to their nonvariant uppercase forms.


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Basic Examples  (1)

Convert characters in a string to uppercase:

Scope  (5)

Everything other than lowercase letters is left unchanged:

ToUpperCase threads itself elementwise over lists:

Accented characters:

Greek letters:

Script letters:

Possible Issues  (2)

The uppercase form of the German ß character is a pair of characters:

ToLowerCase does not give back the original character:

For a few characters, ToLowerCase is not the inverse of ToUpperCase:

Neat Examples  (2)

Check that the German ß character is the only one to have a multicharacter uppercase form:

Find the names of characters for which ToLowerCase is not the inverse of ToUpperCase:

Introduced in 1991
Updated in 1996