Taxonomic and physical data for plants. For general access to all taxa, including animals, plants, fungi and other microorganisms, use entities of type TaxonomicSpecies.

Entity["Plant",name] or

represents an entity of type "Plant".


gives the value of a specified property.


gives the value of a list of properties.


gives the value of a specified property modified by qualifier rules quali->vali.


gives the value of a property associated with a particular date specification.


represents a class of entities with values of propi defined by speci.

Sample Entities

Sample Entity Classes


  • ActiveGrowthPeriodactive growth period
    AdaptedToCoarseTexturedSoilsQadapted to coarse textured soils
    AdaptedToFineTexturedSoilsQadapted to fine textured soils
    AdaptedToMediumTexturedSoilsQadapted to medium textured soils
    AfterHarvestRegrowthRateafter harvest regrowth rate
    AlternateCommonNamesalternate common names
    AlternateScientificNamesalternate scientific names
    AnaerobicToleranceanaerobic tolerance
    AreaPerPlantRangearea per plant range
    BerryNutSeedProductQberry nut seed product
    BinomialAuthorbinomial author
    BloomPeriodreproductive period
    CalciumCarbonateTolerancecalcium carbonate tolerance
    CarbonNitrogenRatiocarbon nitrogen ratio
    ChristmasTreeProductQchristmas tree product
    ColdStratificationcold stratification
    COLNameCodeCOL name code
    COLNumberCOL number
    CommercialAvailabilitycommercial availability
    CommonNamecommon name
    CoppicePotentialQcoppice potential
    CountryListcountry distribution list
    DroughtTolerancedrought tolerance
    Durationnatural life cycle
    EntityClassesentity classes
    EntityTypeListentity type list
    FallConspicuousQfall conspicuous
    FederalNoxiousStatusfederal noxious status
    FederalTEStatusfederal TE status
    FertilityRequirementfertility requirement
    FireResistantQfire resistant
    FireTolerancefire tolerance
    FlowerColorflower color
    FlowerConspicuousQflower conspicuous
    FodderProductQfodder product
    FoliageColorfoliage color
    FoliagePorositySummerfoliage porosity summer
    FoliagePorosityWinterfoliage porosity winter
    FoliageTexturefoliage texture
    FruitColorfruit color
    FruitConspicuousQfruit conspicuous
    FruitSeedAbundancefruit/seed abundance
    FruitSeedBeginPeriodfruit/seed begin period
    FruitSeedEndPeriodfruit/seed end period
    FuelwoodPotentialfuelwood potential
    GerminationTemperaturegermination temperature
    GerminationTimegermination time
    GrowthHabitgrowth form
    GrowthRategrowth rate
    GrowthRequirementGroupssoil texture requirements
    HedgeTolerancepruning tolerance
    KnownAllelopathQknown allelopath
    LeafRetentionQleaf retention
    LocalOccurrencenatural occurrence
    LowGrowingGrassQlow growing grass
    LumberProductQlumber product
    MatureHeightmature height
    MatureHeightBaseAgeMaximummaximum mature height at base age
    MaximumAreaPerPlantmaximum area per plant
    MaximumpHmaximum pH
    MaximumPlantingDensityPerAcremaximum planting density
    MaximumPrecipitationmaximum precipitation
    MinimumAreaPerPlantminimum area per plant
    MinimumFrostFreeDaysminimum frost free days
    MinimumpHminimum pH
    MinimumPlantingDensityPerAcreminimum planting density
    MinimumPrecipitationminimum precipitation
    MinimumRootDepthminimum root depth
    MinimumTemperatureminimum tolerable temperature
    MoistureUsemoisture use
    NationalWetlandStatusnational wetland status
    NavalStoreProductQnaval store product
    NitrogenFixationnitrogen fixation
    NumberOfSubEntitiesnumber of child taxa
    NurseryStockProductQnursery stock product
    OptimalTemperatureRangeoptimal temperature range
    PalatableBrowseAnimalpalatable to browsing animals
    PalatableGrazeAnimalpalatable to grazing animals
    PalatableHumanhuman palatability
    PalatableHumanQpalatable to humans
    ParentEntityparent taxon
    PersistentFruitSeedfruit/seed persistence
    PHRangepH range
    PlantHardinessZoneUSDA hardiness zone
    PlantHeatZoneAHS heat zone
    PlantingDensityPerAcreRangeplanting density range
    PostProductQpost product
    PrecipitationRangeprecipitation range
    PropagatedByBareRootQpropagated by bare root
    PropagatedByBulbsQpropagated by bulbs
    PropagatedByContainerQpropagated by container
    PropagatedByCormsQpropagated by corms
    PropagatedByCuttingsQpropagated by cuttings
    PropagatedBySeedQpropagated by seed
    PropagatedBySodQpropagated by sod
    PropagatedBySprigsQpropagated by sprigs
    PropagatedByTubersQpropagated by tubers
    ProteinPotentialprotein potential
    ProvinceListCanadian province distribution list
    PulpwoodProductQpulpwood product
    QuadrinomialAuthorquadrinomial author
    RegionalWetlandStatusregional wetland status
    ReproductionGroupsmethod of propagation
    ResproutAbilityQresprout ability
    SalinityTolerancesalinity tolerance
    ScientificNamescientific name
    SeedlingVigorseedling vigor
    SeedsPerPoundseed count
    SeedSpreadRateseed spread rate
    ShadeToleranceshade tolerance
    ShapeAndOrientationshape and orientation
    Siblingssibling taxa
    SmallGrainsmall grain
    StateListU.S. state distribution list
    SubEntitieschild taxa
    TaxonomicLeveltaxonomic level
    TaxonomicSequencetaxonomic sequence
    TaxonomyGraphtaxonomy graph
    TrinomialAuthortrinomial author
    USDAAcceptedSymbolUSDA accepted symbol
    USDAClassUSDA class
    USDADivisionUSDA division
    USDAFamilyUSDA family
    USDAFormaUSDA forma
    USDAGenusUSDA genus
    USDAGeographicDistributionUSDA geographic distribution
    USDAKingdomUSDA kingdom
    USDAOrderUSDA order
    USDASpeciesUSDA species
    USDASubclassUSDA subclass
    USDASubdivisionUSDA subdivision
    USDASubkingdomUSDA subkingdom
    USDASubspeciesUSDA subspecies
    USDASuperdivisionUSDA superdivision
    USDASymbolUSDA symbol
    USDAVarietyUSDA variety
    VegetativeSpreadRatevegetative spread rate
    VeneerProductQveneer product


  • "Plant" entities include particular species and higher-order taxonomic groups reflecting USDA reporting conventions.
  • "Plant" entity classes include taxonomic levels, such as class and order, as well as groupings based on shared characteristics, such as USDA hardiness zones and AHS heat zones.
  • Some properties are available for the "Plant" entity type as a whole and can be given using the form EntityValue["Plant",property]. Such properties include:
  • "Properties"the list of available properties
    "PropertyCanonicalNames"the standard names of available properties
    "SampleEntities"a sample list of available entities (typically of length 10)
    "SampleEntityClasses"a sample list of available entity classes (typically of length 10)
    "EntityCount"number of entities available
    "Entities"the list of available entities
    "EntityCanonicalNames"the standard names of available entities
    "EntityClasses"the list of available entity classes
    "EntityClassCanonicalNames"the standard names of available entity classes
    "PropertyClasses"the list of available property classes
    "PropertyClassCanonicalNames"the standard names of available property classes
    "PropertyCount"number of properties available
  • The following annotations can be used in the third argument of EntityValue["Plant",property,annotation]:
  • "Source"source information for the property
    "Date"the date associated with the entity-property value (if any)
    "EntityAssociation"an association of entities and entity-property values
    "PropertyAssociation"an association of properties and entity-property values
    "EntityPropertyAssociation"an association in which the specified entities are keys, and values are a nested association of properties and entity-property values
    "PropertyEntityAssociation"an association in which the specified properties are keys, and values are a nested association of entities and entity-property values
    "Dataset"a dataset in which the specified entities are keys, and values are an association of property names and entity-property values
  • The following annotations can be used in the second argument of EntityValue[property,annotation]:
  • "Qualifiers"the list of possible qualifiers for the property
    "QualifierValues"the list of possible values that can be given to each qualifier
    "DefaultQualifierValues"the list of default values for the property's qualifiers
    "Description"a brief textual description of the property
    "Definition"a detailed textual definition of the property
    "PhysicalQuantity"the physical quantity associated with the entity-property value
    "Unit"the unit associated with the entity-property value
  • A qualifier value of Automatic indicates that an applicable format of values can be used; e.g. for the "Date" qualifier, this includes a proper date or date span.


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Basic Examples  (3)

Use for entity discovery:

Find a property value for an entity:

Retrieve a dataset of all available properties for an entity:

Neat Examples  (3)

Combine the taxonomy graphs of several species:

Visualize the geographic distribution of plants using data from the USDA:

Display images of a collection of flowers: