This model with lumped volumes describes turbulent flow. The flow is defined by the equation:
|:||Mass flow rate|
|:||Pressure difference between ports a and b|
The flow equation is linearized for pressure differences near zero to increase numerical stability.
This model is only valid for turbulent flow. No checks are made if it is physically possible that the flow through the component actually is turbulent.
K. Gieck and R. Gieck, Engineering Formulas
, 7th ed., Germering, Germany: Gieck Publishing, 1997 p. N7.