ForAll

ForAll[x,expr]

represents the statement that expr is True for all values of x.

ForAll[x,cond,expr]

states that expr is True for all x satisfying the condition cond.

ForAll[{x1,x2,},expr]

states that expr is True for all values of all the xi.

Details

  • ForAll[x,expr] can be entered as xexpr. The character can be entered as fa or \[ForAll]. The variable x is given as a subscript.
  • ForAll[x,cond,expr] can be entered as x,condexpr.
  • In StandardForm, ForAll[x,expr] is output as xexpr.
  • ForAll[x,cond,expr] is output as x,condexpr.
  • ForAll can be used in such functions as Reduce, Resolve, and FullSimplify.
  • The condition cond is often used to specify the domain of a variable, as in xIntegers.
  • ForAll[x,cond,expr] is equivalent to ForAll[x,Implies[cond,expr]].
  • ForAll[{x1,x2,},] is equivalent to .
  • The value of in ForAll[x,expr] is taken to be localized, as in Block.

Examples

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Basic Examples  (1)

This states that for all , is positive:

Use Resolve to get a condition on real parameters for which the statement is true:

Reduce gives the condition in a solved form:

Scope  (6)

This states that for all the inequation is true:

Use Resolve to prove that the statement is false:

This states that for all real the inequation is true:

Use Resolve to prove that the statement is true:

This states that for all pairs the inequality is true:

With domain not specified, Resolve considers algebraic variables in inequalities to be real:

With domain Complexes, complex values that make the inequality False are allowed:

This states the tautology implies :

Prove it:

If the expression does not explicitly contain a variable, ForAll simplifies automatically:

TraditionalForm formatting:

Applications  (5)

This states the inequality between the arithmetic mean and the geometric mean:

Use Resolve to prove the inequality:

This states a special case of Hölder's inequality:

Use Resolve to prove the inequality:

This states a special case of Minkowski's inequality:

Use Resolve to prove the inequality:

Prove geometric inequalities for , , and sides of a triangle:

This states that an inequality is satisfied for all triangles:

Use Resolve to prove the inequality:

This states that an inequality is satisfied for all acute triangles:

Use Resolve to prove the inequality:

Test whether one region is included in another:

This states that all points satisfying R1 also satisfy R2:

The statement is true, hence the region defined by R1 is included in the region defined by R2:

Plot the relationship:

Properties & Relations  (3)

Negation of ForAll gives Exists:

Quantifiers can be eliminated using Resolve or Reduce:

This eliminates the quantifier:

This eliminates the quantifier and solves the resulting equations and inequalities:

This states that an equation is true for all complex values of :

Use Reduce to find the values of parameters for which the statement is true:

This solves the same problem using SolveAlways:

Introduced in 2003
 (5.0)