generates a list of all possible permutations of the elements in list.


gives all permutations containing at most n elements.


gives all permutations containing exactly n elements.


  • There are n! permutations of a list of n distinct elements.
  • Repeated elements are treated as identical. »
  • The object list need not have head List.
  • Permutations[list] is effectively equivalent to Permutations[list,{Length[list]}].
  • Permutations[list,{nmin,nmax}] gives permutations of between nmin and nmax elements.


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Basic Examples  (2)

Length-3 permutations of {a,b,c}:

Length-3 permutations of {a,b,c,d}:

Scope  (4)

Repeated elements are treated as identical:

Use any expressions as elements:

Get permutations of all lengths, shortest ones first:

Get even-length permutations, longest ones first:

Generalizations & Extensions  (1)

The list of elements can have any head:

Properties & Relations  (3)

The number of length-n permutations of a length-n list of distinct elements is n!:

The number of length-r permutations of a length-n list of distinct elements is n!/(n-r)!:

If the input list is in the order given by Sort, so are its length-r permutations:

Introduced in 1988
Updated in 2007