prints as the standard Wolfram Language two-dimensional representation of expr.


  • StandardForm generates output that gives a unique and unambiguous representation of Wolfram Language expressions, suitable for use as input. »
  • StandardForm incorporates many aspects of traditional mathematical notation.
  • StandardForm is the standard format type used for both input and output of Wolfram Language expressions in notebooks.
  • Graphics and Graphics3D are displayed graphically in StandardForm.
  • StandardForm can be edited in the notebook front end.
  • StandardForm uses special characters as well as ordinary keyboard characters.
  • StandardForm is based on boxes.
  • The notebook front end contains menu items for conversion to and from StandardForm.
  • When an input evaluates to StandardForm[expr], StandardForm does not appear in the output. »


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Basic Examples  (2)

StandardForm is used by default for output:

StandardForm for graphics:

Scope  (7)

Basic Objects  (2)

Integer, Rational, Real, and Complex numbers:

Arbitrary-precision Real and Complex numbers:

Special constants:

Characters and strings of characters:

Control characters for strings:

Special Input Forms  (3)

Different Power expressions:

Special typeset expressions:

Different list structures:

Special Output Forms  (2)

Some objects use a special output representation:

Compare with the underlying FullForm of the expression:

Some objects use an elided output representation:

The elided parts are visible using InputForm:

Properties & Relations  (5)

When an input evaluates to StandardForm[expr], StandardForm does not appear in the output:

Out is assigned the value x2, not StandardForm[x^2]:

StandardForm is two-dimensional unambiguous formatting:

OutputForm approximates StandardForm using keyboard characters:

TraditionalForm is two-dimensional, but ambiguous formatting:

InputForm and FullForm provide one-dimensional formatting:

Use ToString to generate a string in StandardForm:

The string includes two-dimensional markup:

Use ToExpression to convert back:

Use ToBoxes to get the box representation of an expression in StandardForm:

Use ToExpression to convert back:

Add formatting via Format:

Possible Issues  (1)

Even when an output omits StandardForm from the top level, it is not stripped from subexpressions:

The output does not have StandardForm in it:

However, the variable e does have StandardForm in it, which may affect subsequent evaluations:

The product is not evaluated due to the intervening StandardForm:

Assign variables first and then apply StandardForm to the result to maintain computability:

Neat Examples  (1)

Nested roots:

Nested powers:

Wolfram Research (1996), StandardForm, Wolfram Language function, (updated 2007).


Wolfram Research (1996), StandardForm, Wolfram Language function, (updated 2007).


@misc{reference.wolfram_2020_standardform, author="Wolfram Research", title="{StandardForm}", year="2007", howpublished="\url{}", note=[Accessed: 02-March-2021 ]}


@online{reference.wolfram_2020_standardform, organization={Wolfram Research}, title={StandardForm}, year={2007}, url={}, note=[Accessed: 02-March-2021 ]}


Wolfram Language. 1996. "StandardForm." Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Wolfram Research. Last Modified 2007.


Wolfram Language. (1996). StandardForm. Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Retrieved from