gives the Whittaker function .


  • Mathematical function, suitable for both symbolic and numerical manipulation.
  • WhittakerM is related to the hypergeometric function by .
  • vanishes at for .
  • For certain special arguments, WhittakerM automatically evaluates to exact values.
  • WhittakerM can be evaluated to arbitrary numerical precision.
  • WhittakerM automatically threads over lists.
  • WhittakerM[k,m,z] has a branch cut discontinuity in the complex plane running from to .


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Basic Examples  (6)

Evaluate numerically:

Use FunctionExpand to expand in terms of hypergeometric functions:

Plot over a subset of the reals :

Plot over a subset of the complexes:

Series expansion at the origin:

Series expansion at Infinity:

Scope  (25)

Numerical Evaluation  (4)

Evaluate numerically:

Evaluate to high precision:

The precision of the output tracks the precision of the input:

Complex number input:

Evaluate efficiently at high precision:

Specific Values  (7)

WhittakerM for symbolic parameters:

Values at zero:

Find the first positive maximum of WhittakerM[5,1/2,x]:

Compute the associated WhittakerM[3,1/2,x] function:

Compute the associated WhittakerM function for half-integer parameters:

Different WhittakerM types give different symbolic forms:

WhittakerM threads elementwise over lists:

Visualization  (3)

Plot the WhittakerM function for various orders:

Plot the real part of :

Plot the imaginary part of :

Plot as real parts of two parameters vary:

Function Properties  (3)

Real domain of WhittakerM:

Complex domain of WhittakerM:

WhittakerM may reduce to simpler functions:

TraditionalForm formatting:

Differentiation  (3)

First derivative with respect to z:

Higher derivatives with respect to z when k=1/3 and m=1/2:

Plot the higher derivatives with respect to z when k=1/3 and m=1/2:

Formula for the ^(th) derivative with respect to z:

Series Expansions  (5)

Find the Taylor expansion using Series:

Plots of the first three approximations around :

General term in the series expansion using SeriesCoefficient:

Find the series expansion at Infinity:

Find series expansion for an arbitrary symbolic direction :

Taylor expansion at a generic point:

Applications  (1)

The bound-state Coulomb eigenfunction in parabolic coordinates:

Decompose the eigenfunction in terms of spherical eigenfunctions:

Parabolic coordinates relate to radial coordinates as and :

Properties & Relations  (4)

Use FunctionExpand to expand WhittakerM into other functions:

Integrate expressions involving Whittaker functions:

WhittakerM can be represented as a DifferentialRoot:

WhittakerM can be represented as a DifferenceRoot:

Introduced in 2007