returns the thermodynamic properties of seawater for the specified parameters.


returns the specified property for the given parameters.


  • spec should be an association with keys corresponding to the following parameters:
  • "AbsoluteSalinity"mass fraction of dissolved material in seawater
    "PracticalSalinity"salinity defined as in the Practical Salinity Scale of 1978
    "Pressure"pressure of seawater
    "ReferencePressure"fixed pressure for calculations of potential density
    "SaturationFraction"fraction of air saturation of seawater
    "Temperature"temperature of seawater
  • If a parameter is omitted or invalid, a default value is used as noted below.
  • Salinity can be specified using "AbsoluteSalinity" or "PracticalSalinity". If both are used, "PracticalSalinity" takes precedence. "AbsoluteSalinity" should be a Quantity of grams per kilogram, while "PracticalSalinity" should be a pure number. If no salinity is included, an "AbsoluteSalinity" of 35.2 g/kg is used.
  • "Position" should be specified as a GeoPosition. If not specified, GeoPosition[{0,180}] is used. Only latitudes above the 86th parallel south are supported.
  • "Pressure", "ReferencePressure", and "Temperature" should be Quantity objects with the appropriate units. Default values are 1.01325 bars ("Pressure"), 10 bars ("ReferencePressure"), and 20° C ("Temperature").
  • "SaturationFraction" should be a pure number. It is assumed to be 1 if not otherwise specified.
  • Not all properties rely on all parameters.
  • Properties relying only on "AbsoluteSalinity":
  • "IonicStrength"concentration of salt ions in seawater
    "Molality"concentration of salt solute in seawater
  • Properties relying only on "PracticalSalinity":
  • "ReferenceSalinity"Absolute Salinity of Standard Seawater
  • Properties relying only on "Pressure":
  • "AbsolutePressure"pressure referenced against a perfect vacuum
  • Properties relying only on salinity, "Position", and "Pressure" include:
  • "AbsoluteSalinity"mass fraction of dissolved material in seawater
    "AbsoluteSalinityAnomaly"Absolute Salinity difference from Standard Seawater salinity
    "PracticalSalinity"salinity defined as in the Practical Salinity Scale of 1978
    "PreformedSalinity"Absolute Salinity without biogeochemical contributions
  • Properties relying only on "AbsoluteSalinity" and "Pressure" include:
  • "FusionHeat"latent heat of fusion
  • Properties relying only on "AbsoluteSalinity" and "Temperature" include:
  • "VaporizationHeat"latent heat of vaporization
  • Properties relying only on "AbsoluteSalinity", "Pressure", and "Temperature" include:
  • "AdiabaticLapseRate"temperature change with pressure at constant entropy and Absolute Salinity
    "CabbelingCoefficient"rate at which dianeutral advection occurs as a result of mixing of heat and salt along the neutral tangent plane
    "ChemicalPotentialSalt"chemical potential of salt in seawater
    "ChemicalPotentialSeaWater"chemical potential of seawater
    "ChemicalPotentialWater"chemical potential of water in seawater
    "Conductivity"electrical conductance per unit distance
    "ConservativeTemperature"potential enthalpy divided by a fixed heat capacity
    "Density"density of seawater
    "DynamicEnthalpy"specific enthalpy minus potential enthalpy
    "Enthalpy"specific enthalpy
    "Entropy"specific entropy
    "GibbsEnergy"specific Gibbs free energy
    "HelmholtzEnergy"Helmholtz free energy
    "InternalEnergy"specific internal energy of seawater
    "IsentropicCompressibility"isentropic and isohaline (or adiabatic) compressibility
    "IsobaricHeatCapacity"heat capacity at constant pressure and Absolute Salinity
    "IsochoricHeatCapacity"heat capacity at constant volume
    "OsmoticCoefficient"osmotic coefficient
    "OsmoticPressure"osmotic pressure
    "PotentialDensityAnomaly"difference of potential density from 1000 kg/m3
    "PotentialTemperature"temperature of seawater adjusted to a fixed reference pressure in an isentropic and isohaline manner
    "SalineContractionCoefficient"saline contraction coefficient
    "SoundSpeed"speed of sound in seawater
    "ThermalExpansionCoefficient"thermal expansion coefficient
    "ThermobaricCoefficient"rate of variation with pressure of the ratio of the thermal expansion coefficient and the saline contraction coefficient
    "SpecificVolume"specific volume
    "SpecificVolumeAnomaly"specific volume difference from value at 0° C
  • Gas concentration properties rely only on "AbsoluteSalinity", "Position", "Pressure", and "Temperature". The "Concentration" property will return a list of concentrations with air at standard pressure including the following compounds:
  • "Argon"equilibrium argon concentration in seawater
    "Helium"equilibrium helium concentration in seawater
    "Krypton"equilibrium krypton concentration in seawater
    "MolecularNitrogen"equilibrium nitrogen concentration in seawater
    "MolecularOxygen"equilibrium oxygen concentration in seawater
    "Neon"equilibrium neon concentration in seawater
    "NitrousOxide"equilibrium nitrous oxide concentration in seawater
  • Properties relying only on "AbsoluteSalinity", "Pressure", "ReferencePressure", and "Temperature" include:
  • "PotentialDensity"density that seawater would have if its pressure were changed to a fixed reference pressure in an isentropic and isohaline manner
  • Properties relying only on "AbsoluteSalinity", "Pressure", "SaturationFraction", and "Temperature" include:
  • "ConservativeMeltingPoint"melting point of seawater in conservative temperature
    "MeltingPoint"melting point of seawater
  • Properties relying only on "Position" and "Pressure" include:
  • "Depth"distance below the ocean surface
    "GravityAcceleration"gravitational acceleration at a given latitude and pressure
  • StandardOceanData is based on a wide range of sources, with enhancement at Wolfram Research by both human and algorithmic processing. Principal source is: IOC, SCOR and IAPSO, 2010: The international thermodynamic equation of seawater2010: Calculation and use of thermodynamic properties. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, Manuals and Guides No. 56, UNESCO (English), 196 pp.


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Basic Examples  (2)

Discover the density of seawater for a given salinity, pressure, and temperature:

Calculate all properties for a sample of seawater:

Scope  (4)

Learn all available properties:

Calculate specific enthalpy:

Rely on defaults to use a subset of available parameters for any calculation:

Use QuantityVariable objects to define input parameters:

Applications  (4)

Examine the salinity anomaly over the surface of the ocean:

Examine the relationship between potential temperature and conservative temperature with changing salinity:

Explore the differences between the two temperature scales:

Explore how increasing temperature affects the relationship between pressure and density:

Discover the effects of salinity and temperature on the conductivity of seawater:

Properties & Relations  (2)

Compare ThermodynamicData melting point for pure water to different salinities of sea water:

Use UnitConvert to convert values to different units and unit systems:

Possible Issues  (3)

Salinity input is only supported up to 42 grams/kilogram:

Parameters should have appropriate units:

Saturation fraction should be a number between 0 and 1:

Neat Examples  (1)

Discover how salinity anomaly varies with depth and latitude along 180° E longitude with seafloor elevations superimposed:

Introduced in 2015