is an option for three-dimensional graphics that specifies the projection to use for the graphic.


  • The following settings can be given for ViewProjection:
  • Automaticinfer the projection from the value of the ViewPoint option
    "Perspective"use a perspective projection
    "Orthographic"use an orthographic projection
  • Perspective projection results in a foreshortening effect where the more distant an object is from the viewer, the smaller it appears. Parallel lines that point into the screen will eventually converge if extended far enough.
  • Orthographic projection preserves the apparent sizes of objects regardless of the distance from the viewer. Parallel lines running into the screen never converge.
  • ViewProjection->Automatic defaults to the "Perspective" projection unless one of the ViewPoint parameters is infinite.
  • Orthographic projection corresponds to a perspective view infinitely far from the view center. This means that even if ViewProjection->"Perspective" is set, when the ViewPoint is significantly far from the ViewCenter, the final image will appear orthographic.


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Basic Examples  (1)

By default, 3D graphics use a perspective projection:

Specify an orthographic projection instead:

Scope  (3)

An orthographic projection for an arbitrary viewpoint:

A perspective projection for an arbitrary viewpoint:

A perspective projection that is significantly far away will appear orthographic:

The view projection option similarly applies to Plot3D:

Generalizations & Extensions  (1)

The default projection for an arbitrary ViewPoint will return a perspective projection:

Setting a ViewPoint with an infinite value will instead use an orthographic projection:

Applications  (1)

Possible Issues  (1)

A ViewPoint sufficiently far from the camera is effectively orthographic:

Wolfram Research (2017), ViewProjection, Wolfram Language function,


Wolfram Research (2017), ViewProjection, Wolfram Language function,


Wolfram Language. 2017. "ViewProjection." Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Wolfram Research.


Wolfram Language. (2017). ViewProjection. Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Retrieved from


@misc{reference.wolfram_2024_viewprojection, author="Wolfram Research", title="{ViewProjection}", year="2017", howpublished="\url{}", note=[Accessed: 21-June-2024 ]}


@online{reference.wolfram_2024_viewprojection, organization={Wolfram Research}, title={ViewProjection}, year={2017}, url={}, note=[Accessed: 21-June-2024 ]}