WOLFRAM SYSTEM MODELER
AileronsContribution from ailerons to aerodynamic forces 
SystemModel["Aircraft.Physical.FixedWing.Parts.ControlSurfaces.Components.Ailerons"]
This model calculates the aerodynamic forces due to aileron deflection. All parameters, including the ailerons specific parameters, are propagated to this model from the AircraftBase model, and therefore their values should not be changed here but only in the complete aircraft model. Additionally, the variables of the global flight conditions are propagated here from the AircraftBase model inside the flightData record. The mass properties of the ailerons (if the weight estimation method is used) are included in the equations in the WingBody component.
All forces in this model act on the supposed aerodynamic center of the ailerons, which is at quarter chord at half of the aileron span length. The position of the ailerons with respect to the fuselage reference point is solved based on the given y coordinates of the aileron root and tip (yAilRoot and yAilTp) and the main wing geometry. The equations to estimate the aerodynamic center location as well as any other estimated ailerons parameter can be bypassed by entering the known value in the Ailerons group in the Derived Properties parameter tab in the AircraftBase model.
The magnitudes of the aerodynamic forces acting along the body x and z axes due to ailerons deflection are solved by using the lateral control coefficients for yaw moment due to ailerons deflection (CnDeltaAil) and roll moment due to ailerons deflection (ClDeltaAil), respectively. The derivation of the normalized lateral control coefficients CnDeltaAil and ClDeltaAil, and their conversions into forces by multiplying them by correct factors are performed according to the method presented by Nelson [1]. The empirical factor kCnDeltaAil (K_{C,n}_{,δa}) used for solving CnDeltaAil, is calculated based on a formula presented in section 3.3.4 in Reference [2].
The aerodynamic forces due to ailerons deflection are applied with opposite signs in each side of the main wing as the ailerons are set to always deflect symmetrically but in opposite directions. The signs follow the sign convention of control surface deflections presented in ControlSurfaces.Conventional.
[1] Nelson, R. C. (1998) Flight Stability and Automatic Control. 2nd ed. McGrawHill.
Available at: http://home.eng.iastate.edu/~shermanp/AERE355/lectures/Flight_Stability_and_Automatic_Control_N.pdf.
[2] EräEsko, N. (2022). "Development and Use of System Modeler 6DOF Flight Mechanics Model in Aircraft Conceptual Design."
Available at: modelica://Aircraft/Resources/Documents/EraeEskoThesis.pdf.
weightEst 
Value: Type: Boolean Description: true, if weight estimation method is used for masses, center of mass location and inertia tensor 

xCMdry 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Aircraft center of mass xcoordinate w.r.t. fuselage reference point (with total mass for electric aircraft and gliders, positive xaxis towards nose) 
wFus 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Fuselage maximum width 
bWing 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing span 
cWingRoot 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing root chord (where wing intersects with fuselage) 
xWingRootLE 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing root leading edge xcoordinate w.r.t. fuselage reference point (positive xaxis towards nose) 
zWingRootLE 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing root leading edge zcoordinate w.r.t. fuselage reference point (positive zaxis towards ground) 
lambdaWing 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Main wing sweep angle at 1/4 chord 
gammaWing 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Main wing dihedral angle 
iWing 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Main wing incidence angle 
SrefWing 
Value: Type: Area (m²) Description: Main wing reference area 
cWingMean 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing mean chord length 
yWingAC 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing aerodynamic center from fuselage centerline (ycoordinate w.r.t. fuselage centerline of mean chord) 
lambdaWingLE 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Main wing leading edge sweep angle 
lambdaWingTE 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Main wing trailing edge sweep angle 
cAil 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Aileron average chord 
yAilRoot 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Aileron root ycoordinate w.r.t. fuselage centerline 
yAilTip 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Aileron tip ycoordinate w.r.t. fuselage centerline 
cAilWingRoot 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Local main wing chord at aileron root 
cAilWingTip 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Local main wing chord at aileron tip 
yAilAC 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Aileron aerodynamic center ycoordinate w.r.t. fuselage centerline 
kCnDeltaAil 
Value: Type: Real Description: Empirical factor for the yaw moment derivative due to ailerons 
tauAil 
Value: Type: Real Description: Aileron effectiveness parameter 
deltaAilMax 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Maximum aileron deflection 
CADshapes 
Value: Type: Boolean Description: true, if external CAD files are used for animation 
flightData 
Type: FlightData Description: Global flight data variables 

aircraftRP 
Type: Frame_b Description: Connector to aircraft reference point 


deltaAilCmd 
Type: RealInput Description: Ailerons deflection command 

uLiftAC 
Type: RealInput Description: Total lift force 

uCLalphaWingbody 
Type: RealInput Description: Change in lift coefficient of the wingbody due to alpha 
flightData 
Type: FlightData Description: Global flight data variables 


rightAilAerodForces 
Type: WorldForce Description: Aerodynamic forces from right aileron 

leftAilAerodForces 
Type: WorldForce Description: Aerodynamic forces from left aileron 

aileronDynamics 
Type: CriticalDamping Description: Simplified model of the aileron actuator dynamics 

deltaAilLimiter 
Type: Limiter Description: Limits aileron deflection to its assigned limits 

translWing 
Type: FixedTranslation Description: Position of the main wing root quarter chord (inside fuselage) w.r.t fuselage reference point 

rotRightWing 
Type: FixedRotation Description: Rotation of right wing around dihedral and wing incidence angle 

rotLeftWing 
Type: FixedRotation Description: Rotation of left wing around dihedral and wing incidence angle 

rotRightAilForces 
Type: FixedRotation Description: Rotation of aerodynamic forces acting on right aileron around dihedral and wing incidence angle 

rotLeftAilForces 
Type: FixedRotation Description: Rotation of aerodynamic forces acting on left aileron around dihedral and wing incidence angle 

translRightAilWing 
Type: FixedTranslation Description: Position of right aileron w.r.t. wing root quarter chord (inside fuselage) 

translLeftAilWing 
Type: FixedTranslation Description: Position of left aileron w.r.t. wing root quarter chord (inside fuselage) 

rightAilShape 
Type: FixedShape Description: Visualization of right aileron 

leftAilShape 
Type: FixedShape Description: Visualization of left aileron 
Aircraft.Physical.FixedWing.Parts.ControlSurfaces Model of system of surfaces in conventional wing configuration 