WOLFRAM SYSTEM MODELER
ConventionalModel of system of surfaces in conventional wing configuration 
SystemModel["Aircraft.Physical.FixedWing.Parts.Surfaces.Conventional"]
This model compiles the WingBody, Ailerons, HorizontalTail and VerticalTail components into a system of surfaces of an aircraft with conventional wing configuration for modeling the aerodynamic forces and moments due to the presence of the surfaces and the deflection of the control suraces. The magnitude of the aerodynamic forces and moments are indeed solved in their respective individual surface models, but they require input from one another, and this model serves for distributing the signal between the surface models.
This model also propagates the required parameters and the variables of the flight conditions from the AircraftBase model further into the surface models. Additionally, if the weight estimation method is used, the calculations to estimate the mass properties of the main wing and the tail are performed in the respective models.
The inputs to this model are the control surface deflections, namely the elevator delflection (δ_{e}, deltaElvCmd), ailerons deflection (δ_{a}, deltaAilCmd) and rudder deflection (δ_{r}, deltaRdrCmd). Figure 1 shows the positive directions of control surface deflection angles as well as the body angular velocities and moments. All surface models are connected here to the aircraft reference point frame (aircraftRP), and the translations and rotations of each surface with respect to the aircraft reference point are included in the respective surface models.
Figure 1: Sign convention of control surface deflections, body angular velocities and moments [1].
For the horizontal and vertical tails, the contributions from their control surfaces, i.e. elevator and rudder, are integrated into the calculations of their aerodynamic forces, whereas the ailerons have their dedicated model to calculate their contribution to aerodynamic forces and moments.
[1] EräEsko, N. (2022). "Development and Use of System Modeler 6DOF Flight Mechanics Model in Aircraft Conceptual Design."
Available at: modelica://Aircraft/Resources/Documents/EraeEskoThesis.pdf.
weightEst 
Value: Type: Boolean Description: true, if weight estimation method is used for masses, center of mass location and inertia tensor 

xCMdry 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Aircraft center of mass xcoordinate w.r.t. fuselage reference point (with total mass for electric aircraft and gliders, positive xaxis towards nose) 
zCMdry 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Aircraft center of mass zcoordinate w.r.t. fuselage reference point (with total mass for electric aircraft and gliders, positive zaxis towards ground) 
MTOMdes 
Value: Type: Mass (kg) Description: Design maximum takeoff mass 
machDes 
Value: Type: Real Description: Design Mach number 
compMat 
Value: Type: Boolean Description: true, if composite materials are used in structures 
qMax 
Value: Type: Pressure (Pa) Description: Maximum dynamic pressure 
nMax 
Value: Type: Real Description: Maximum load factor 
lFus 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Fuselage length 
wFus 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Fuselage maximum width 
hFus 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Fuselage maximum height 
dFusHT 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Fuselage diameter at horizontal tail 1/4 chord 
SwetFus 
Value: Type: Area (m²) Description: Fuselage wetted area 
FFfus 
Value: Type: Real Description: Fuselage form factor 
bWing 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing span 
cWingRoot 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing root chord (where wing intersects with fuselage) 
cWingTip 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing tip chord 
tWingRoot 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing root thickness 
xWingRootLE 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing root leading edge xcoordinate w.r.t. fuselage reference point (positive xaxis towards nose) 
zWingRootLE 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing root leading edge zcoordinate w.r.t. fuselage reference point (positive zaxis towards ground) 
lambdaWing 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Main wing sweep angle at 1/4 chord 
gammaWing 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Main wing dihedral angle 
iWing 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Main wing incidence angle 
SrefWing 
Value: Type: Area (m²) Description: Main wing reference area 
ARwing 
Value: Type: Real Description: Main wing aspect ratio 
TRwing 
Value: Type: Real Description: Main wing taper ratio 
cWingMean 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing mean chord length 
xWingAC 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing aerodynamic center from wing leading edge at mean chord (positive xaxis towards nose) 
yWingAC 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main wing aerodynamic center from fuselage centerline (ycoordinate w.r.t. fuselage centerline of mean chord) 
SwetWing 
Value: Type: Area (m²) Description: Main wing wetted area 
lambdaWingLE 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Main wing leading edge sweep angle 
lambdaWingHC 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Main wing halfchord sweep angle 
lambdaWingTE 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Main wing trailing edge sweep angle 
FFwing 
Value: Type: Real Description: Main wing form factor 
sdWing 
Value: Type: Real Description: Fuselage drag factor for main wing 
kdWing 
Value: Type: Real Description: Empirical constant for Oswald efficiency factor for main wing 
cAil 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Aileron average chord 
yAilRoot 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Aileron root ycoordinate w.r.t. fuselage centerline 
yAilTip 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Aileron tip ycoordinate w.r.t. fuselage centerline 
yAilAC 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Aileron aerodynamic center ycoordinate w.r.t. fuselage centerline 
cAilWingRoot 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Local main wing chord at aileron root 
cAilWingTip 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Local main wing chord at aileron tip 
kCnDeltaAil 
Value: Type: Real Description: Empirical factor for the yaw moment derivative due to ailerons 
tauAil 
Value: Type: Real Description: Aileron effectiveness parameter 
bHT 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Horizontal tail span 
cHTroot 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Horizontal tail root chord 
cHTtip 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Horizontal tail tip chord 
tHTroot 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Horizontal tail root thickness 
zHTrootLE 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Horizontal tail root leading edge zcoordinate w.r.t. fuselage reference point (positive zaxis towards ground) 
lambdaHT 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Horizontal tail sweep angle at 1/4 chord 
iHT 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Horizontal tail incidence angle 
Selv 
Value: Type: Area (m²) Description: Elevator area 
SrefHT 
Value: Type: Area (m²) Description: Horizontal tail reference area 
ARht 
Value: Type: Real Description: Aspect ratio of horizontal tail 
TRht 
Value: Type: Real Description: Taper ratio of horizontal tail 
cHTmean 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Horizontal tail mean chord 
lHTcm 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Horizontal tail arm length (from aircraft center of mass to horizontal tail 1/4 chord) 
lHTwingAC 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Horizontal tail arm length (from wing aerodynamic center to horizontal tail 1/4 chord) 
SwetHT 
Value: Type: Area (m²) Description: Horizontal tail wetted area 
lambdaHTle 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Horizontal tail leading edge sweep angle 
FFht 
Value: Type: Real Description: Horizontal tail form factor 
sdHT 
Value: Type: Real Description: Fuselage drag factor for horizontal tail 
kdHT 
Value: Type: Real Description: Empirical constant for Oswald efficiency factor for horizontal tail 
tauElv 
Value: Type: Real Description: Elevator effectiveness parameter 
bVT 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Vertical tail span 
cVTroot 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Vertical tail root chord 
cVTtip 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Vertical tail tip chord 
tVTroot 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Vertical tail root thickness 
zVTroot 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Vertical tail root zcoordinate w.r.t fuselage reference point 
lambdaVT 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Vertical tail sweep angle at 1/4 chord 
Srdr 
Value: Type: Area (m²) Description: Rudder area 
SrefVT 
Value: Type: Area (m²) Description: Vertical tail reference area 
ARvt 
Value: Type: Real Description: Aspect ratio of vertical tail 
TRvt 
Value: Type: Real Description: Taper ratio of vertical tail 
cVTmean 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Vertical tail mean chord 
lVTcm 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Vertical tail arm length (from aircraft center of mass to vertical tail 1/4 chord) 
lVTwingAC 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Vertical tail arm length (from wing aerodynamic center to vertical tail aerodynamic center) 
zVTac 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Vertical tail center of pressure zcoordinate w.r.t. fuselage reference point 
SwetVT 
Value: Type: Area (m²) Description: Vertical tail wetted area 
lambdaVTle 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Vertical tail leading edge sweep angle 
FFvt 
Value: Type: Real Description: Vertical tail form factor 
sdVT 
Value: Type: Real Description: Fuselage drag factor for vertical tail 
kdVT 
Value: Type: Real Description: Empirical constant for Oswald efficiency factor for vertical tail 
tauRdr 
Value: Type: Real Description: Rudder effectiveness parameter 
sigmaBeta 
Value: Type: Real Description: Change in sidewash due to beta 
kSkinFus 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Fuselage surface roughness height 
CDmaxFus 
Value: Type: Real Description: Maximum drag coefficient of the fuselage 
kSkinWing 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Main Wing surface roughness height 
ClAlphaWing2D 
Value: Type: CurveSlope (rad⁻¹) Description: Change in the section lift coefficient of the main wing airfoil (2D) due to alpha 
alpha0Wing2D 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Zerolift angle of attack of the main wing airfoil (2D) 
CLmaxWing3D 
Value: Type: Real Description: Maximum lift coefficient of the main wing (3D) 
CDmaxWing3D 
Value: Type: Real Description: Maximum drag coefficient of the main wing (3D) 
kSkinHT 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Horizontal tail surface roughness height 
ClAlphaHT2D 
Value: Type: CurveSlope (rad⁻¹) Description: Change in the section lift coefficient of the horizontal tail airfoil (2D) due to alpha 
alpha0HT2D 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Zerolift angle of attack of the horizontal tail airfoil (2D) 
CLmaxHT3D 
Value: Type: Real Description: Maximum lift coefficient of the horizontal tail (3D) 
CDmaxHT3D 
Value: Type: Real Description: Maximum drag coefficient of the horizontal tail (3D)*(SrefHT/SrefWing) 
kSkinVT 
Value: Type: Length (m) Description: Vertical tail surface roughness height 
ClAlphaVT2D 
Value: Type: CurveSlope (rad⁻¹) Description: Change in the section lift coefficient of the vertical tail airfoil (2D) due to alpha 
deltaElvMax 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Maximum elevator deflection 
deltaAilMax 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Maximum aileron deflection 
deltaRdrMax 
Value: Type: Angle (rad) Description: Maximum rudder deflection 
CADshapes 
Value: Type: Boolean Description: true, if external CAD files are used for animation 
rho0 
Value: Type: Density (kg/m³) Description: Air density at sealevel 
a0 
Value: Type: Velocity (m/s) Description: Speed of sound at sealevel 
flightData 
Type: FlightData Description: Global flight data variables 

flightData 
Type: FlightData Description: Global flight data variables 


wingBody 
Type: WingBody Description: Model for drag and lift forces due to main wing and fuselage 

horizontalTail 
Type: HorizontalTail Description: Model for lift and drag forces due to horizontal tail and elevator 

verticalTail 
Type: VerticalTail Description: Model for lift and drag forces due to vertical tail and rudder 

ailerons 
Type: Ailerons Description: Model for lift and drag forces due to ailerons 

totalLift 
Type: Add Description: Summing of the lift force components 
Aircraft.Physical.FixedWing.Interfaces Interface for a complete aircraft model 