The Wolfram Language is uniquely suited for processing symbolic expressions because of its powerful pattern-matching abilities and large collection of built-in structural manipulation functions. This tutorial provides a few examples to illustrate the use of the Wolfram Language for processing XML data.
When you import an arbitrary XML document into the Wolfram Language, it is automatically converted into a symbolic XML expression. Symbolic XML is the format used for representing XML documents in Wolfram Language syntax. The conversion to symbolic XML translates the XML document into a Wolfram Language expression while preserving its structure. The advantage of converting XML data into symbolic XML is that you can directly manipulate symbolic XML using any of the Wolfram Language's built-in functions.
Convert an XML string into symbolic XML.
Use a simple transformation rule to remove the unwanted "red" element from the list.
Use ExportString to convert symbolic XML into native XML syntax, which was designed to be easy to read.
Visualizing the XML Tree
Many XML tools display an XML document as a collapsible tree, where the nodes correspond to the elements of the document. This example shows how to produce a similar visualization using cell grouping in a Wolfram Language notebook.
You will do this by recursively traversing the symbolic XML expression and creating a CellGroupData expression that contains cells for each of the XMLElement object's attributes and children. Each nested CellGroupData expression will be indented from the previous one. You start with the function to process an XMLElement object.
Use the integer m for indentation. When you map XMLNote onto the XMLElement object's children, you pass a larger value for m, increasing the indentation for the child elements.
A CellGroupData expression contains a list of cells. In the definition, you have only created a cell for the XMLElementx. However, you have then mapped XMLNote onto the attribute list. Since this returns a list, you need to use Apply[Sequence] for the result in order to merge that list into the CellGroupData expression's list of cells. You then do the same thing to the children of the XMLElement.
However, you have not yet defined XMLNote to work on attributes. The attributes of an XMLElement object are stored in symbolic XML as rules. In most cases, the rule contains two strings: the key and the value. However, when namespaces are involved, the first element of the rule may be a list containing two strings: the namespace and the key. You will need to make two definitions to handle the attributes.
We will need one more definition in order to process simple symbolic XML expressions. The text nodes in an XML document are stored simply as String objects in symbolic XML. Thus, you need a definition that handles String objects.
Construct a simple notebook to visualize a basic XML document.
Since the default value of the option "IncludeEmbeddedObjects" is None, you did not alter comments, processing instructions, or anything else that would be stored in an XMLObject. Adding definitions for these is not difficult and would be a good exercise in processing symbolic XML.
Manipulating XML Data
XML applications are used for more than just document layout. XML is also an excellent format for storing structured data. Many commercial database vendors are now adding XML support to their products, allowing you to work with databases using XML as an intermediate format.
The Wolfram Language's symbolic pattern-matching capabilities make it an ideal tool for extracting and manipulating information from XML documents. To illustrate this, manipulate an XML file containing data on major league baseball players.
Import this file into the Wolfram Languageas symbolic XML.
Each player's information is stored in a PlayerRecord element. Extract this with Cases.
The XML document contains records for 294 players. Inside each PlayerRecord, there is a TEAM element that specifies a player's team. By passing a slightly more sophisticated pattern to Cases, you can extract a list of all players on the Yankees team.
The variable yankees now contains a list of symbolic XML expressions for all the Yankees players. Look at the first element of yankees.
The player's name is stored in the PLAYER element of each PlayerRecord element. Extract the name from one PlayerRecord element.
Alternatively, use Cases on yankees with an appropriate pattern.
Symbolic XML is a general-purpose format for expressing arbitrary XML data. In some cases, you may find it more useful to convert symbolic XML into a different type of Wolfram Language expression. This type of conversion is easy to do using pattern matching.
Import an XML file containing data about baseball pitchers and translate the symbolic XML into a list of rules.
All the information about the player is stored in a list of Wolfram Language rules with Pitcher as the head.
In addition to transforming the data into a different expression syntax, you can also modify the data and leave the overall expression in symbolic XML. This way you can alter our data, but still export it to an XML file for use with other applications. As an example, you will work with the salaries of American League hitters.
Delete any PlayerRecord entries where the salary is not available.
Create a function to extract name-salary pairs. Then sort these pairs by salary and look at the top 10.
To illustrate changing data in symbolic XML, create a function that doubles players' salaries.
Comparing XSLT and the Wolfram Language
In many situations, you need to transform a document from one XML format into another; one popular technique used for this purpose is XSLT transformations. The Wolfram Language's pattern-matching and transformation abilities allow you to do similar transformations by importing the original document and then manipulating the symbolic XML. This section gives examples of some basic XSLT transformations and shows how to do the equivalent transformations in the Wolfram Language.
A Simple Template
In this example, XML dialect uses the code tag to enclose program code. Typically, this is displayed in a monospace font. If you were to convert such a document to XHTML, you would probably want to use the pre tag for code.
In the Wolfram Language, you can create a function to do the same.
Inserting Attribute Values
Now consider an XML application that uses the termdef element to indicate the definition of a new term. You might want to anchor the definition with an element named a so that you can link directly to that location in the document. Assuming you have templates to handle whatever string formatting is inside the termdef element, you can use the following XSLT.
Notice that the name attribute in the resultant XHTML gets the value of the id attribute of the original termdef element.
In the Wolfram Language, you can do the following.
Consider a more complicated example, which will use XPath predicates. Assume you would like to match anoteelement, but only if it either has a role attribute set to example or if it contains an eg element as a child. Look at an XSLT template and then explain what it does.
The first xsl:if element checks to see if the first child element is a p element. If it is, then xsl:apply-templates is called on that child. This is similar to calling Map across the results of Cases. In the second xsl:if element, you check if there are p child elements beyond the first child. If so, xsl:apply-templates is called on those. Here is the corresponding Wolfram Language code.
To select an ancestor or sibling, you have to realize that an XML document is just a stream of characters that follows a grammar. Tools for manipulating XML documents treat XML according to some model. In the case of XSLT (and its path-selection language, XPath), this model is that of a tree. Since the Wolfram Language is a list-based language, it treats XML as nested expression lists.
While these two models are similar, they have important differences. Most notably, in nested lists you do not inherently have any concept of the containing list. Technically, any transformation that can be done with axis types like ancestor can also be done without them. However, it is often convenient to traverse up the XML document.
Next is an example and a discussion of how to implement the same behavior in the Wolfram Language. Consider the following XML document.
Assume you simply want to have a template that matches bibref elements and replaces them with the text inside of the corresponding bibl element. In XSLT, you would write the following template.
The problem with using the same approach in the Wolfram Language is that once you have matched a bibref element, you no longer have any information about the elements containing it. As a remedy, you will instead pass an expression containing the entire symbolic XML expression. Notice that the bibref element in question can be obtained from the following.
You can pass this expression wrapped in Hold so that you can easily obtain the bibref element by calling ReleaseHold. You can access ancestors by dropping indices from the Part expression. However, you will need to write a pattern-matching function so that you can match these in definitions of functions.
The Wolfram Language transformation then becomes relatively simple.
Converting a Notebook to HTML
Suppose you need to export a notebook in a specific XML format (one not listed under the File▶Save Asdialog's Save As Type: submenu). One option would be to export to ExpressionML and then use some external tool (e.g. XSLT rules) to transform to the desired form of XML. But often it is just as easy to perform the manipulation within the Wolfram Language, converting the notebook expression directly into symbolic XML and saving the latter. Anyone with a basic command of Wolfram Language patterns and programming should be able to do this. Users coming from an XSLT background may even feel a sense of deja vu; since Wolfram Language expressions are essentially trees, the techniques are much the same.
As an example, re-create an abridged version of the File▶Save As▶Web Page (*.html) functionality.
Create an example notebook.
Define a recursive function, transform, to process the original notebook expression from top to bottom, similar to the templates of XSLT.
Establish a default definition to discard anything not explicitly matched by other patterns.
The definition uses Sequence since transform will be applied recursively. The best "null'' result is one that can be dropped in the midst of a list of arguments without disrupting the syntax.
Start with the notebook expression itself.
The argument pattern must be robust enough to accept all variants. (Even though the notebook options are discarded in this conversion, a BlankNullSequence (___) is included to allow for them.)
The only thing done with the contents argument is to pass it back to transform.
The third argument is always a List. Forgetting this is a common pitfall.
Those familiar with HTML will notice that the head element has been dropped.
The same general theme is followed for the remaining definitions.
Discard cell-grouping information, since the HTML has no use for it.
Translate tothe Wolfram Language sectional heads their HTML counterparts.
Since the contents of a Wolfram Language Text style cell can be a simple string or a list wrapped with TextData if the text has substructure of its own, create a definition for both cases.
Simple strings should just be passed on.
Deal with (simple) font changes.
Here is the final product.
Get output in a more human-readable form by using ExportString.
Verify that this is well-formed XML.
The symbolic XML can be exported to a file, suitable for viewing with a web browser.
An alternative is to apply a list of replacement rules using ReplaceRepeated (//.).
The two methods produce identical results.
Here is how the two methods differ.
Since the recursion occurs implicitly via ReplaceRepeated, the latter implementation is cleaner in spots. In particular, contrast the handling of Textcells: the TextData rule can be separated from the Cell rule. The same could be accomplished for the recursive function, but at the cost of additional patterns for the various forms that contents might take (for example, _List versus _String and so on). ReplaceRepeated, by acting on all subexpressions, obviates this need.
There is no default rule for the second method. Any unhandled parts of the original Wolfram Language expression will pass through unchanged, probably rendering invalid XML.
Use Clear to remove the definitions of all the symbols.
Verifying Symbolic XML Syntax
You can use XML`SymbolicXMLErrors to find errors in a symbolic XML expression. This function returns a part specification that you can use with functions like Part or Extract to access the problematic part of your symbolic XML expression.
Import an XML file containing data about the American League hitters.
Assume that any player whose salary is "#N/A" is making $1,000,000. Perform the transformation, but make an easily overlooked mistake and use the string "1000000" as the third element, rather than a list containing that string.
Export produces errors when writing modified XML to a file. Use SymbolicXMLErrors to find the problematic expressions.
XMLElement::cntsList messages are the first indication that something is wrong. The output of SymbolicXMLErrors, however, shows exactly where something went wrong. ALerrors now contains a list of part specifications where the errors occurred. Examine the first error.
This problem is easy enough to fix.
The rest of the errors are of the same nature.
UseMap to fix the rest of the errors in the same way.