# KelvinKer

KelvinKer[z]

gives the Kelvin function .

KelvinKer[n,z]

gives the Kelvin function .

# Details

• Mathematical function, suitable for both symbolic and numerical manipulation.
• For positive real values of parameters, . For other values, is defined by analytic continuation.
• KelvinKer[n,z] has a branch cut discontinuity in the complex z plane running from to .
• KelvinKer[z] is equivalent to KelvinKer[0,z].
• For certain special arguments, KelvinKer automatically evaluates to exact values.
• KelvinKer can be evaluated to arbitrary numerical precision.
• KelvinKer automatically threads over lists.

# Examples

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## Basic Examples(6)

Evaluate numerically:

Plot over a subset of the reals:

Plot over a subset of the complexes:

Series expansion at the origin:

Series expansion at Infinity:

Series expansion at a singular point:

## Scope(35)

### Numerical Evaluation(6)

Evaluate numerically:

Evaluate to high precision:

The precision of the output tracks the precision of the input:

Complex number inputs:

Evaluate efficiently at high precision:

Compute average case statistical intervals using Around:

Compute the elementwise values of an array:

Or compute the matrix KelvinKer function using MatrixFunction:

### Specific Values(3)

Values at zero:

Find the first positive maximum of KelvinKer[0,x]:

For some half-integer orders, KelvinKer evaluates to the same elementary functions:

### Visualization(3)

Plot the KelvinKer function for integer () and half-integer () orders:

Plot the real part of :

Plot the imaginary part of :

Plot the real part of :

Plot the imaginary part of :

### Function Properties(12)

The real domain of :

The complex domain of :

is defined for all real values greater than 0:

The complex domain is the whole plane except :

Approximate function range of :

Approximate function range of :

Functional identity:

is not an analytic function:

KelvinKer is neither non-decreasing nor non-increasing:

KelvinKer is not injective:

KelvinKer[2,z] is not surjective:

KelvinKer is neither non-negative nor non-positive:

KelvinKer has both singularity and discontinuity for z0:

KelvinKer is neither convex nor concave:

### Differentiation(3)

The first derivative with respect to z:

The first derivative with respect to z when n=1:

Higher derivatives with respect to z:

Plot the higher derivatives with respect to z:

Formula for the derivative with respect to z:

### Integration(3)

Compute the indefinite integral using Integrate:

Verify the anti-derivative:

The definite integral:

More integrals:

### Series Expansions(5)

Find the Taylor expansion using Series:

Plots of the first three approximations around :

The general term in the series expansion using SeriesCoefficient:

Find the series expansion at Infinity:

Find the series expansion for an arbitrary symbolic direction :

The Taylor expansion at a generic point:

## Generalizations & Extensions(1)

KelvinKer can be applied to a power series:

## Applications(3)

Solve the Kelvin differential equation:

Plot the radial density profile for alternating current within a hollow cylinder:

The derivative of MeijerG for some values is KelvinKer:

## Properties & Relations(3)

Use FullSimplify to simplify expressions involving Kelvin functions:

Use FunctionExpand to expand Kelvin functions of half-integer orders:

KelvinKer can be represented in terms of MeijerG:

## Possible Issues(1)

The oneargument form evaluates to the two-argument form:

Wolfram Research (2007), KelvinKer, Wolfram Language function, https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/KelvinKer.html.

#### Text

Wolfram Research (2007), KelvinKer, Wolfram Language function, https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/KelvinKer.html.

#### CMS

Wolfram Language. 2007. "KelvinKer." Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Wolfram Research. https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/KelvinKer.html.

#### APA

Wolfram Language. (2007). KelvinKer. Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Retrieved from https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/KelvinKer.html

#### BibTeX

@misc{reference.wolfram_2024_kelvinker, author="Wolfram Research", title="{KelvinKer}", year="2007", howpublished="\url{https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/KelvinKer.html}", note=[Accessed: 10-September-2024 ]}

#### BibLaTeX

@online{reference.wolfram_2024_kelvinker, organization={Wolfram Research}, title={KelvinKer}, year={2007}, url={https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/KelvinKer.html}, note=[Accessed: 10-September-2024 ]}